Punitive expedition


Punitive expedition

A punitive expedition is a military journey undertaken to punish a state or any group of persons. It is usually undertaken in response to disobedient or morally wrong behavior, but may be also be a covered revenge.

harvtxt|Stowell|1921 provides the following definition:

When the territorial sovereign is too weak or is unwilling to enforce respect for international law, a state which is wronged may find it necessary to invade the territory and to chastise the individuals who violate its rights and threaten its security.

Notable punitive expeditions

*In the 13th century Kublai Khan in China sent emissaries demanding tribute from the Singhasari kingdom of Java. The ruler of the Singhasari kingdom, Kertanagara, refused to pay tribute. A punitive expedition sent by Khan arrived off the coast of Java in 1293. Jayakatwang, a rebel from Kediri, had killed Kertanagara by that time. The Mongols allied with Raden Wijaya of Majapahit against Jayakatwang and, once the Singhasari kingdom was destroyed, Wijaya turned and forced his Mongol allies to withdraw in confusion.
* The 1874 Japanese expedition against Formosa.cite news
url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9902E2DB1730E033A25751C2A96E9C94659ED7CF
title=A Victory for the Chinese; Japanese Driven with Heavy Loss from Ping-yang
work=The New York Times
page=5
date=August 22, 1894
]
* The shortest war in history, the Anglo-Zanzibar War can be described as a punitive expedition. The origin of the war was election of the "wrong" (i.e. not a pro-British) sultan.
*Benin Expedition of 1897 British punitive action that led to the annexation of the Kingdom of Benin. "The New York Times" reported on January 13, 1897 that a "punitive expedition" would be formed to "punish the murderers of the Benin City expedition."cite news
url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9902E7D7173DE633A25750C1A9679C94669ED7CF
accessdate=2008-08-24
title=To Punish the Murderers; Great Britain Will Send Another Expedition to Benin City
work=The New York Times
date=January 13, 1897
quote=The Daily News will to-morrow say that the Government has ordered that an expedition be formed to punish the murderers of the Benin City expedition. The punitive expedition, which will be prepared at Old Calaber, will be made up of men from the forces of the Niger Coast Protectorate and a contingent of sailors from the British West African squadron.
]
*The Pancho Villa Expedition from 1916 to 1917, led by General John J. Pershing, was an operation in retaliation against Pancho Villa's incursion into United States. cite news
last=Elser |first=Frank B. |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9A0CE1DD163BE633A25757C1A9629C946796D6CF
accessdate=2008-08-25
title=Assure Pershing of Co-operation; Gen. Herrera and Staff Greet Villa's Pursuers After 100-Mile Ride in Desert
work=The New York Times
date=April 14, 1916
quote=The first Carranza General to exchange formal courtesies with General John J. Pershing, leader of the punitive expedition after Pancho Villa, came riding into camp this afternoon on a pacing gray horse and, seated on an empty hardtack tin, paid his respects, and inquired after the health of the American forces
]
*Suppression of the 1920 Iraqi Revolt against the British Mandate of Mesopotamia, cite news
authorlink=Niall Ferguson
last=Ferguson
firlst=Niall
url=http://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/24/opinion/24ferguson.html
accessdate=2008-08-25
title=Cowboys and Indians
work=The New York Times
date=May 24, 2005
quote=The United States also faces two other problems that the United Kingdom did not 85 years ago. The British were able to be ruthless: they used air raids and punitive expeditions to inflict harsh collective punishments on villages that supported the insurgents.
]

Notes

References

*citation
url=http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2801%28196506%2937%3A2%3C171%3AJACVIT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-9&size=LARGE&origin=JSTOR-enlargePage |last=Gordon |first=Leonard
year=1965
title=Japan's Abortive Colonial Venture in Taiwan, 1874"
journal=The Journal of Modern History
volume=Vol. 37 |issue=No. 2
pages=pp. 171–185
doi=10.1086/239635

*citation
last=Stowell
first=Ellery Cory
title=Intervention in International Law
place=Washington, D. C.
publisher=J. Bryne & Co.
year=1921
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=X3lDAAAAIAAJ&printsec=toc&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0#PPA41,M1
pages=41–42


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