A Xerox copier in a high school library.

A photocopier (also known as a copier or copy machine) is a machine that makes paper copies of documents and other visual images quickly and cheaply. Most current photocopiers use a technology called xerography, a dry process using heat. (Copiers can also use other technologies such as ink jet, but xerography is standard for office copying.)

Xerographic office photocopying was introduced by Xerox in 1959,[1] and it gradually replaced copies made by Verifax, Photostat, carbon paper, mimeograph machines, and other duplicating machines. The prevalence of its use is one of the factors that prevented the development of the paperless office heralded early in the digital revolution[citation needed].

Photocopying is widely used in business, education, and government. There have been many predictions that photocopiers will eventually become obsolete as information workers continue to increase their digital document creation and distribution, and rely less on distributing actual pieces of paper.


How a photocopier works (using xerography)

Schematic overview of the xerographic photocopying process (step 1-4)
  1. Charging: cylindrical drum is electrostatically charged by a high voltage wire called a corona wire or a charge roller. The drum has a coating of a photoconductive material. A photoconductor is a semiconductor that becomes conductive when exposed to light.[2]
  2. Exposure: A bright lamp illuminates the original document, and the white areas of the original document reflect the light onto the surface of the photoconductive drum. The areas of the drum that are exposed to light become conductive and therefore discharge to ground. The area of the drum not exposed to light (those areas that correspond to black portions of the original document) remain negatively charged. The result is a latent electrical image on the surface of the drum.
  3. Developing: The toner is positively charged. When it is applied to the drum to develop the image, it is attracted and sticks to the areas that are negatively charged (black areas), just as paper sticks to a toy balloon with a static charge.
  4. Transfer: The resulting toner image on the surface of the drum is transferred from the drum onto a piece of paper with a higher negative charge than the drum.
  5. Fusing: The toner is melted and bonded to the paper by heat and pressure rollers.

This example is of a negatively charged drum and paper, and positively charged toner as is common in today's digital copiers. Some copiers, mostly older analog copiers, employ a positively charged drum and paper, and negatively charged toner.

A negative photocopy inverts the colors of the document when creating a photocopy, resulting in letters that appear white on a black background instead of black on a white background. Negative photocopies of old or faded documents sometimes produce documents which have better focus and are easier to read and study.


The first widely used copy machine for offices was invented by James Watt in 1779.[3] It relied on physically transferring some of the (specially formulated) ink from an original letter or drawing to a moistened thin unsized sheet of paper by means of a press. The copy could then be read from the obverse side. The system was a commercial success and was in use in for over a century.

In 1937, Bulgarian physicist Georgi Nadjakov found that, when placed into an electric field and exposed to light, some dielectrics acquire permanent electric polarization in the exposed areas.[4] That polarization persists in the dark and is destroyed in light.

Chester Carlson, the inventor of photocopying, was originally a patent attorney, as well as a part-time researcher and inventor. His job at the patent office in New York required him to make a large number of copies of important papers. Carlson, who was arthritic, found this to be a painful and tedious process. This motivated him to conduct experiments with photoconductivity. Carlson used his kitchen for his "electrophotography" experiments, and, in 1938, he applied for a patent for the process. He made the first photocopy using a zinc plate covered with sulfur. The words "10-22-38 Astoria" were written on a microscope slide, which was placed on top of more sulfur and under a bright light. After the slide was removed, a mirror image of the words remained. Carlson tried to sell his invention to some companies, but failed because the process was still underdeveloped. At the time, multiple copies were most commonly made at the point of document origination, using carbon paper or manual duplicating machines, and people did not see the need for an electronic machine. Between 1939 and 1944, Carlson was turned down by over 20 companies, including IBM and General Electric—neither of which believed there was a significant market for copiers.

In 1944, the Battelle Memorial Institute, a non-profit organization in Columbus, Ohio, contracted with Carlson to refine his new process. Over the next five years, the institute conducted experiments to improve the process of electrophotography. In 1947, Haloid Corporation (a small New York-based manufacturer and seller of photographic paper) approached Battelle to obtain a license to develop and market a copying machine based on this technology.

Haloid felt that the word "electrophotography" was too complicated and did not have good recall value. After consulting a professor of classical language at Ohio State University, Haloid and Carlson changed the name of the process to "xerography," which was derived from Greek words that meant "dry writing." Haloid called the new copier machines "Xerox Machines" and, in 1948, the word "Xerox" was trademarked. Haloid eventually changed its name to Xerox Corporation.

In 1949, Xerox Corporation introduced the first xerographic copier called the Model A.[1] Xerox became so successful that, in North America, photocopying came to be popularly known as "xeroxing." Xerox has actively fought to prevent "Xerox" from becoming a genericized trademark. While the word "Xerox" has appeared in some dictionaries as a synonym for photocopying, Xerox Corporation typically requests that such entries be modified, and that people not use the term "Xerox" in this way. Some languages include hybrid terms, such as the widely used Polish term kserokopia ("xerocopy"), even though relatively few photocopiers are of the Xerox brand.

In the early 1950s, Radio Corporation of America (RCA) introduced a variation on the process called Electrofax, whereby images are formed directly on specially coated paper and rendered with a toner dispersed in a liquid.

During the 1960s and through the 1980s, Savin Corporation developed and sold a line of liquid-toner copiers that implemented a technology based on patents held by the company.

Prior to the widespread adoption of xerographic copiers, photo-direct copies produced by machines such as Kodak's Verifax were used. A primary obstacle associated with the pre-xerographic copying technologies was the high cost of supplies: a Verifax print required supplies costing USD $0.15 in 1969, while a Xerox print could be made for USD $0.03 including paper and labor. At that time, Thermofax photocopying machines in libraries could make letter-sized copies for USD $0.25 or more (at a time when the minimum wage for a US worker was USD $1.65/hour).

Xerographic copier manufacturers took advantage of a high perceived-value of the 1960s and early 1970s, and marketed paper that was "specially designed" for xerographic output. By the end of the 1970s, paper producers made xerographic "runability" one of the requirements for most of their office paper brands.

Some devices sold as photocopiers have replaced the drum-based process with inkjet or transfer film technology.

Among the key advantages of photocopiers over earlier copying technologies are their ability:

  • to use plain (untreated) office paper,
  • to implement duplex (or two-sided) printing, and
  • eventually, to sort and/or staple output.

Color photocopiers

Colored toner became available in the 1950s, although full-color copiers were not commercially available until 3M released the Color-in-Color copier in 1968, which used a dye sublimation process rather than conventional electrostatic technology. The first electrostatic color copier was released by Canon in 1973.

Color photocopying is a concern to governments, as it facilitates counterfeiting currency. Some countries have incorporated anti-counterfeiting technologies into their currency specifically to make it harder to use a color photocopier for counterfeiting. These technologies include watermarks, microprinting, holograms, tiny security strips made of plastic (or other material), and ink that appears to change color as the currency is viewed at an angle. Some photocopying machines contain special software that can prevent copying currency that contains a special pattern.

Digital technology

There is an increasing trend for new photocopiers to adopt digital technology, thus replacing the older analog technology. With digital copying, the copier effectively consists of an integrated scanner and laser printer. This design has several advantages, such as automatic image quality enhancement and the ability to "build jobs" (that is, to scan page images independently of the process of printing them). Some digital copiers can function as high-speed scanners; such models typically offer the ability to send documents via email or to make them available on file servers.

A great advantage of digital copier technology is "automatic digital collation." For example, when copying a set of 20 pages 20 times, a digital copier scans each page only once, then uses the stored information to produce 20 sets. In an analog copier, either each page is scanned 20 times (a total of 400 scans), making one set at a time, or 20 separate output trays are used for the 20 sets.

Low-end copiers also use digital technology, but tend to consist of a standard PC scanner coupled to an inkjet or low-end laser printer, both of which are far slower than their counterparts in high-end copiers. However, low-end scanner-inkjets can provide color copying at a far lower cost than can a traditional color copier. The cost of electronics is such that combined scanner-printers sometimes have built-in fax machines. (See Multifunction printer.)

Copyright issues

Photocopying material that is subject to copyright (such as books or scientific papers) is subject to restrictions in most countries. This is common practice, as the cost of purchasing a book for the sake of one article or a few pages can be excessive. The principle of fair use (in the United States) or fair dealing (in other Berne Convention countries) allows this type of copying for research purposes.

In certain countries, such as Canada, some universities pay royalties from each photocopy made at university copy machines and copy centers to copyright collectives out of the revenues from the photocopying, and these collectives distribute resulting funds to various scholarly publishers. In the United States, photocopied compilations of articles, handouts, graphics, and other information called readers are often required texts for college classes. Either the instructor or the copy center is responsible for clearing copyright for every article in the reader, and attribution information must be clearly included in the reader.

Health issues

Exposure to ultraviolet light is a concern. In the early days of photocopiers, the sensitizing light source was filtered green to match the optimal sensitivity of the photoconductive surface. This filtering conveniently removed all ultraviolet.[5] Currently, a variety of light sources are used. As glass transmits ultraviolet rays between 325 and 400 nanometers, copiers with ultraviolet-producing lights such as fluorescent, tungsten halogen, or xenon flash, expose documents to some ultraviolet.[5]

Concerns about emissions from photocopy machines have been expressed by some in connection with the use of selenium and emissions of ozone and fumes from heated toner.[6][7] However, these concerns may be due to misunderstanding or exaggeration.[8] There are real concerns over the emissions from this equipment. The manufacturers manuals clearly identify concerns and publish rules for both the siting of the machines adjacent to people and the need for air in the locality. There are various warnings regarding emissions from the manufacturers and this should not be disregarded.

Forensic identification

Similar to forensic identification of typewriters, computer printers and copiers can be traced by imperfections in their output. The mechanical tolerances of the toner and paper feed mechanisms cause banding, which can reveal information about the individual device's mechanical properties. It is often possible to identify the manufacturer and brand, and, in some cases, the individual printer can be identified from a set of known printers by comparing their outputs.[9][10]

Some high-quality color printers and copiers steganographically embed their identification code into the printed pages, as fine and almost invisible patterns of yellow dots. Some sources identify Xerox and Canon as companies doing this.[11][12] The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) has investigated this issue[13] and documented how the Xerox DocuColor printer's serial number, as well as the date and time of the printout, are encoded in a repeating 8×15 dot pattern in the yellow channel. EFF is working to reverse engineer additional printers.[14] The US government has been reported[by whom?] to have asked these companies to implement such a tracking scheme, so that counterfeiting can be traced.

See also


  1. ^ a b "Factbook". 
  2. ^ "Encarta definition of 'photoconductor'". Retrieved 2009-11-20. 
  3. ^ Hills, Rev. Dr. Richard L., James Watt, Vol 2, The years of toil, 1775-1785; pp 190-211, Landmark Publishing Ltd, ISBN 1-84306-045-0.
  4. ^ "Georgi Nadjakov Photoelectrics". Retrieved 2009-11-20. 
  5. ^ a b "Photocopier Hazards and a Conservation Case Study (notes 17,18)". Retrieved 2009-11-20. 
  6. ^ "Photocopier and Laser Printer Hazards". London Hazards Centre. 2002. Retrieved 2009-11-20. 
  7. ^ "Health and Safety Representatives’ Handbook" (PDF). National Association of Schoolmasters Union of Women Teachers (NASUWT). July 27 2009. Retrieved April 30 2011. 
  8. ^ "Photocopiers and Laser Printers Health Hazards". Retrieved 2009-11-20. 
  9. ^ "Printer forensics to aid homeland security, tracing counterfeiters". 2004-10-12. Retrieved 2009-11-20. 
  10. ^ "Computer Printers Can Catch Terrorists". 2004-10-18. Retrieved 2009-11-20. 
  11. ^ Jason Tuohey (2004-11-22). "Government Uses Color Laser Printer Technology to Track Documents". Retrieved 2009-11-20. 
  12. ^ Wilbert de Vries (2004-10-26). "Dutch track counterfeits via printer serial numbers". Retrieved 2009-11-20. 
  13. ^ "Is Your Printer Spying On You?". Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved 2009-11-20. 
  14. ^ "List of Printers Which Do or Do Not Display Tracking Dots". Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved 2009-11-20. 

Further reading

  • R. Schaffert: Electrophotography. Focal Press, 1975
  • Owen, David (August 2004). Copies in Seconds : How a Lone Inventor and an Unknown Company Created the Biggest Communication Breakthrough Since Gutenberg: Chester Carlson and the Birth of the Xerox Machine. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0743251172. 

External links

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • photocopier — [ fɔtɔkɔpje ] v. tr. <conjug. : 7> • 1907; de photocopie ♦ Reproduire (un document) par la photographie. Photocopier un contrat, un diplôme. Absolt Machine à photocopier. ⇒ photocopieur. ● photocopier verbe transitif Faire une photocopie d… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • photocopier — pho‧to‧cop‧i‧er [ˈfəʊtəʊˌkɒpiə ǁ ˈfoʊtəˌkɑːpiər] noun [countable] OFFICE a machine that quickly makes photographic copies of documents: • an expensive colour photocopier * * * photocopier UK US /ˈfəʊtəʊˌkɒpiər/ noun [C] (also copier) ► …   Financial and business terms

  • photocopier — ► NOUN ▪ a machine for making photocopies …   English terms dictionary

  • photocopier — UK [ˈfəʊtəʊˌkɒpɪə(r)] / US [ˈfoʊtoʊˌkɑpɪər] noun [countable] Word forms photocopier : singular photocopier plural photocopiers a machine that copies documents or pictures from one piece of paper to another …   English dictionary

  • photocopier — [[t]fo͟ʊtoʊkɒpiə(r)[/t]] photocopiers N COUNT A photocopier is a machine which quickly copies documents onto paper by photographing them …   English dictionary

  • photocopier — noun see photocopy II …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • photocopier — /foh teuh kop ee euhr/, n. any electrically operated machine using a photographic method, as the electrostatic process, for making instant copies of written, drawn, or printed material. Also called copier, copy machine, photocopying machine.… …   Universalium

  • photocopier — noun A machine which reproduces documents by photographing the original over a glass plate and printing duplicates. Syn: copier …   Wiktionary

  • Photocopier — Светокопировальный аппарат; фотокопировальная машина …   Краткий толковый словарь по полиграфии

  • photocopier — pho|to|cop|i|er [ˈfəutəuˌkɔpiə US ˈfoutəˌka:piər] n a machine that makes photographic copies of documents …   Dictionary of contemporary English

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