- El Paso and Southwestern Railroad
Infobox SG rail
railroad_name=El Paso and Southwestern Railroad
Arizona, New Mexico, Texas; Sonora, Mexico
hq_city=The El Paso and Southwestern Railroad was a short-line American
railway companywhich operated in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, with line extensions across the international border into Mexico. The railroad operated from 1888 to 1961, and was known as the Arizona and South Eastern Railroad from 1888 to 1901.
James Douglas was a former professor of
chemistryworking for William E. Dodge, Jr.and Daniel Willis James, majority co-owners of the Phelps, Dodge Corporation.Beach and Rines, "The Americana: A Universal Reference Library," 1911.] Cleland, "A History of Phelps Dodge: 1834–1950," 1952.] Phelps, Dodge was entering the copper mining industry, and had hired Douglas to make an inspection of mining claims in the Southwestern United States. Douglas suggested that the two men invest in the Detroit Copper Mining Company of Arizona, which owned a copper mining claim in Warren, Arizona. In 1881, Phelps, Dodge not only took a controlling interest in the Detroit Copper Mining Company but also purchased a minority interest in the adjoining Copper Queen Minein Bisbee, Arizona.Whitten, Whitten and Sisaye, "The Birth of Big Business in the United States, 1860–1914: Commercial, Extractive, and Industrial Enterprise," 2005.] After the Copper Queen and Detroit Copper both struck the Atlanta lode["Phelps Dodge Corporation," in "International Directory of Company Histories," 2006.] in 1884, Phelps, Dodge bought out the remaining interest in the Copper Queen. The company merged its various mining interests into the Copper Queen Consolidated Mining Company in 1885, and installed Douglas as president and part-owner.
With production in the Bisbee expanding, Douglas formed the Arizona and South Eastern Railroad in 1888. The railroad ran on a short spur of track from Bisbee to
Fairbank, Arizona, where it met the Santa Fe Railroad. Shortly thereafter the line was extended to Benson, Arizona, to connect with the Southern Pacific Railroad. Copper Queen Consolidated built a new smelter at the newly built town of Douglas, Arizona(named for James Douglas), to which the railroad was extended again. The line was renamed the El Paso and Southwestern Railroad on June 25, 1901, to reflect its larger scope (even though it did not yet extend to El Paso, Texas).
James and Dodge, meanwhile, had acquired the
Moctezuma Copper Companyin the state of Sonorain Mexico, and in 1902 the El Paso and Southwestern line was extended south from Douglas to the Mexican town of Nacozari de García. [Truett, "Fugitive Landscapes: The Forgotten History of the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands," 2006.] The Nacorazi Railroad, owned by Moctezuma Copper Co. and used to transport ore to the Moctezuma smelter at Nacozari, was incorporated into the El Paso and Southwestern.
Phelps, Dodge continued to expand, and in time purchased copper mines near
Morenci, Arizona. A subsidiary of the El Paso and Southwestern—the Morenci Southern—was incorporated on June 6, 1902, and its roadbed connected the Morenci mines to the New Mexico and Arizona Railroad (a division of the Santa Fe Railroad).Cravens, "El Paso and Southwestern Railroad," in "The New Handbook of Texas," 1996.]
In 1903, the terminus of the El Paso and Southwestern was extended from Douglas to El Paso by building new track as well as purchasing track from the
El Paso and Northeastern Railroad, adding over 200 miles of roadway to the line. The purchase of the Dawson Railwayalso extended the railroad's reach to Dawson, New Mexico, where Phelps, Dodge had recently acquired coal mines to feed its smelting operations. Near Deming, New Mexico, the new track had to cross the line of the Southern Pacific Railroad.Aubé, "The 48th," 2005.] Aware that the Southern Pacific had only two watchmen on the route, the El Paso and Southern stopped all trains on either side of the junction and laid its new track across that of the Southern Pacific. In one day, the El Paso and Southwestern ran more than 500 fully laden hopper cars across the new junction to establish a right-of-way. The Southern Pacific sued and won a temporary injunction, but the injunction was never enforced and the El Paso and Southwestern continued to cross the Southern Pacific's line.
After the deaths of Dodge in 1903 and James in 1907, the various Phelps, Dodge railroads, mining companies, real estate firms, and other subsidiaries and divisions were all merged into Phelps, Dodge and Company.
The railroad's expansion continued gradually, and by 1917 the El Paso and Southwestern Railroad had more than 1,000 miles of track in operation. However, the same year saw the railroad involved in a terrible breach of civil liberties. During the
Bisbee Deportation, railroad officials collaborated with their counterparts in the Phelps, Dodge mining subsidiaries to deport more than 1,300 striking mine workers, their supporters, and innocent citizen bystanders from the town of Bisbee more than 200 miles to the town of Hermanas, New Mexico. [Jensen, "Heritage of Conflict: Labor Relations in the Nonferrous Metals Industry up to 1930," 1950; Foner, "History of the Labor Movement in the United States. Vol. 7: Labor and World War I, 1914–1918," 1987; Dubofsky, "We Shall Be All: A History of the Industrial Workers of the World," 2000; Byrkit, "The Bisbee Deportation," in "American Labor in the Southwest," 1982.]
The worldwide collapse of copper prices after
World War I[Herfindahl, "Copper Costs and Prices: 1870–1957," 1959.] severely affected not only the railroad's financial fortunes but those of the mining companies it served. In 1924, the Southern Pacific leased the entire El Paso and Southwest Railroad from Phelps, Dodge. In November 1937, the rairoad purchased the outstanding interest in the El Paso and Northeastern Railroad. It acquired the El Paso Southern Railway Company in December 1954.
Route and notable buildings
Highways follow most of the route of the El Paso and Southwestern Railroad. Beginning in Tucson, Arizona,
Arizona State Route 80(formerly U.S. Route 80, but decommissioned in 1964 after Interstate 10was built) largely parallels the railroad grade south to Douglas. Arizona Route 80 then follows the old tracks northeast to Rodeo, New Mexico. The tracks diverge from the highway here, and largely follow Gas Line Road until it intersects with New Mexico State Road 9near Animus, New Mexico. New Mexico State Road 9 runs next to or on top of the old railroad grade until it reaches El Paso, Texas.
The northern Arizona spur of the railroad may be followed by following
U.S. Route 191north from Douglas to Morenci, Arizona. The Mexican spur may be followed by beginning in Douglas, crossing the international border into Mexico, and following Mexican Federal Highway 14to Nacozari de García. The northern New Mexican spur parallels or is underneath Interstate 25, and then taking New Mexico State Road 505(which intersects Interstate 25 at Maxwell, New Mexico) to Colfax, New Mexico. The Dawson Road travels the remainder of the spur from Colfax to the ghost town of Dawson.
Several El Paso and Southwestern buildings are on the
National Register of Historic Places. Among these are the El Paso and Southwestern Railroad Depotat 419 W. Congress Street in Tucson, Arizona; [ [http://www.nationalregisterofhistoricplaces.com/az/Pima/state.html "El Paso and Southwestern Railroad Depot (added 2004 — Building — #03000903)." Arizona — Pima County. National Register of Historic Places.] Accessed August 17, 2008.] the El Paso and Southwestern Railroad Passenger Depot(also known as the Southern Pacific Railroad Passenger Depot) at 14th Street and H Avenue in Douglas, Arizona; [ [http://www.nationalregisterofhistoricplaces.com/az/Cochise/state.html "El Paso and Southwestern Railroad Passenger Depot–Douglas (added 1986 — Building &mndash; #86000792)." Arizona — Cochise County. National Register of Historic Places.] Accessed August 17, 2008.] and the El Paso and Southwestern Railroad YMCA(also known as the Douglas YMCA) at 1000 Pan American Avenue in Douglas; [ [http://www.nationalregisterofhistoricplaces.com/az/Cochise/state.html "El Paso and Southwestern Railroad YMCA (added 1984 — Building — #84000647)." Arizona — Cochise County. National Register of Historic Places.] Accessed August 17, 2008.]
*Aubé, Raymond F. "The 48th." Bloomington, Ind.: AuthorHouse, 2005. ISBN 1420877550
*Beach, Frederick Converse and Rines, George Edwin. "The Americana: A Universal Reference Library." New York: The Americana Co., 1911.
*Byrkit, James. "The Bisbee Deportation." In "American Labor in the Southwest." James C. Foster, ed. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1982. ISBN 0816507414
*Cleland, Robert Glass. "A History of Phelps Dodge: 1834–1950." New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1952.
* [http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/EE/eqe7.html Cravens, Chris. "El Paso and Southwestern Railroad." In "The New Handbook of Texas." Austin, Tex.: Texas State Historical Association, 1996. ISBN 0876111517]
*Dubofsky, Melvyn. "We Shall Be All: A History of the Industrial Workers of the World." Abridged ed. Champaign, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 2000. ISBN 0252069056
*Foner, Philip S. "History of the Labor Movement in the United States. Vol. 7: Labor and World War I, 1914–1918." New York: International Publishers, 1987. Cloth ISBN 0717806383; Paperback ISBN 0717806278
*Herfindahl, Orris C. "Copper Costs and Prices: 1870–1957." Washington, D.C.: RFF Press, 1959. ISBN 0801802679
*Jensen, Vernon H. "Heritage of Conflict: Labor Relations in the Nonferrous Metals Industry up to 1930." Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1950.
*"Phelps Dodge Corporation." In "International Directory of Company Histories." Vol. 75. Jay P. Pederson, ed. Florence, Ky.: St. James Press, 2006. ISBN 1558625798
*Truett, Samuel. "Fugitive Landscapes: The Forgotten History of the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands." New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2006. ISBN 030011091X
*Whitten, David O.; Whitten, Bessie Emrick; and Sisaye, Seleshi. "The Birth of Big Business in the United States, 1860–1914: Commercial, Extractive, and Industrial Enterprise." Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2005. ISBN 031332395X
*Robertson, Donald B. "Encyclopedia of Western Railroad History: The Desert States: Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah." Caldwell, Idaho: The Caxton Printers, 1986. ISBN 0870043056
*Stindt, Fred A. "American Shortline Railway Guide." 5th ed. Waukesha, Wisc.: Kalmbach Publishing, 1996. ISBN 0890242909
* [http://digitalcommons.utep.edu/finding_aid/1/ Guide to MS077 Southern Pacific Company (Rio Grande Division) Records. Special Collections Department. University of Texas at El Paso Library.]
* [http://home.swbell.net/lwsumner/areamap.htm Map of the El Paso & Southwestern Railroad. "Ghosts of the Southline" Web site (Lloyd W. Sumner, Webmaster).]
* [http://www.library.arizona.edu/exhibits/bisbee/docs/simmons.html "Michael Simmons v. El Paso and Southwestern Railroad (1919)"] — A collection of primary source documents relating to more than 300 civil lawsuits filed against the railroad after the Bisbee Deportation.
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