- Global Air Traffic Management
Global Air Traffic Management (GATM) is a concept for
satellite-based communication, navigation, surveillanceand air traffic management. The Federal Aviation Administrationand the International Civil Aviation Organization, a special agency of the United Nations, established GATM standards in order to keep air travel safe and effective in increasingly crowded worldwide air space.
Efforts are made all over the world to implement the new technologies that will allow GATM to efficiently support Air Traffic Controller.
Airservices Australia ADS-B initiative is one of the major implementation programs in this field. This initiative will facilitate the certification of this new technology allowing further implementation.
The two core satellite constellations are the
Global Positioning System(GPS) of the USA and the Global Navigation Satellite System(GLONASS) of Russia. The third largest constellations would be Europe's GALILEOwhen it becomes fully operational. These systems provide independent capabilities and can be used in combination with future core constellations and augmentation systems. Signals from core satellite are received by ground reference stations and any errors in the signals are identified. Each station in the network relays the data to area-wide master stations where correction information for specific geographical areas is computed. The correction message is prepared and uplinked to a geostationary communication satellite(GEO) via a ground uplink station. This message is broadcast to receivers on board aircraft flying within the broadcast coverage area of the System. The system is known in the USA as WAAS ( Wide Area Augmentation System), in Europe as EGNOS ( European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System), in Japanas MSAS ( MTSAT Satellite Based Augmentation System) and in Indiaas GAGAN ( GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation).
The system employs various techniques to correct equatorial anomalies. The advantage of the system is, it is Global in scope and it has the potential to support all phases of flight providing a seamless global navigation guidance. This could eliminate the need for a variety of ground and airborne systems that were designed to meet specific requirements for certain phases of flight.Standard and Recommended Practices for the air traffic management based on a global navigation satellite system are developed by
ICAO(International Civil Aviation Organization). Thus the system has to meet ICAO standards to become operational.
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