- Italo Svevo
name=Aron Ettore Schmitz (Italo Svevo)
caption=Italian writer and businessman
death_date=death date and age|1928|9|13|1861|12|19|df=y
Aron Ettore Schmitz (
December 19, 1861– September 13 1928), better known by the pseudonym Italo Svevo, was an Italian businessman and authorof novels, plays, and short stories.
Trieste(then in Austria-Hungary) to a Jewishfamily, Svevo wrote the classic novel " La Coscienza di Zeno" (rendered as "Confessions of Zeno", or "Zeno's Conscience") and self-published it in 1923. The work, showing the author's interest in the theories of Sigmund Freud, is written in the form of the memoirs of one Zeno Cosini, who writes them at the insistence of his psychoanalyst. Schmitz's psychoanalyst was Ottocaro Weiss, who had been trained by Freud in Vienna. Schmitz's novel received almost no attention from Italian readers and critics at the time.
The work might have disappeared altogether if it were not for the efforts of
James Joyce. Joyce had met Schmitz in 1907, when Joyce tutored him in English while working for Berlitz in Trieste. Joyce read Schmitz's earlier novel " Senilità", which had also been largely ignored when published in 1898.
Joyce championed "Confessions of Zeno", helping to have it translated into French and then published in
Paris, where critics praised it extravagantly. That led Italian critics, including Eugenio Montale, to discover it. Zeno Cosini, the book's hero, mirrored Schmitz, being a businessman fascinated by Freudian beliefs.
Schmitz was a citizen of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the end of the
First World War. He spoke Italian as a second language and, according to some critics, wrote it badly - though some have pointed out that it is not bad Italian, but rather the official Tuscan dialectin a Triestino mouth.
"Confessions of Zeno" never looks outside the narrow confines of Trieste, much like Joyce's work, which never left Dublin in the last years of Ireland's time as part of the United Kingdom. Schmitz brings a keenly sardonic wit to his observations of Trieste and, in particular, to his hero, an indifferent man who cheats on his wife and lies to his psychoanalyst and who is trying to explain himself to his
psychoanalystby revisiting his memories.
There is a final connection between Schmitz-Svevo and the character Cosini. Cosini sought
psychoanalysis, he said, in order to discover why he was addicted to nicotine. As he reveals in his memoirs, each time he had given up smoking, with the iron resolve that this would be the "ultima sigaretta!!", he experienced the exhilarating feeling that he was now beginning life over without the burden of his old habits and mistakes. That feeling was, however, so strong that he found smoking irresistible, if only so that he could stop smoking again in order to experience that thrill once more.
Svevo likewise smoked for all of his life. After being hit by a car while crossing the street, he was brought home, where his health rapidly failed. As death approached he asked one of his visitors for a cigarette, telling everyone that this really would be the last one (the request was denied).
* "Una vita", 1892 (A Life)
* "Senilità", 1898 (As a Man Grows Older/Emilio's Carnival)
La Coscienza di Zeno", 1923 (The Confessions of Zeno/Zeno's Conscience)
A Perfect Hoax"
* Svevo, Italo. "Zeno's Conscience". Trans. William Weaver. New York: Vintage International, 2001.
* Furbank, Philip N., "Italo Svevo: The Man and the Writer" (1966)
* Gatt-Rutter, J., "Italo Svevo: A Double Life" (1988)
* Moloney, Brian, "Italo Svevo: A Critical Introduction" (1974)
* [http://losvevo.interfree.it/index.html Novels and stories of Italo Svevo]
* [http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/svevo.htm Italo Svevo]
* [http://www.intratext.com/Catalogo/Autori/Aut359.HTM Works by Svevo] : text with concordances and frequency list
* [http://www.valeriodistefano.com/senilita.htm Senilità] Concordances from the first original Italian Edition
* [http://www.valeriodistefano.com/unavita.htm Concordances of Una vita] , and [http://www.valeriodistefano.com/zeno.htm La Coscienza di Zeno]
* [http://www.ilnarratore.org/show.php?type=author&language=en&aid=68&tpl=/eng/autore.tpl.html Listen to some chapters of "La Coscienza di Zeno"] on audio mp3 free download
NAME=Schmitz, Aron Ettore
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Svevo, Italo (literary pseudonym)
DATE OF BIRTH=
December 19, 1861
PLACE OF BIRTH=
Trieste, Austro-Hungarian Empire
DATE OF DEATH=
September 13, 1928
PLACE OF DEATH=
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