- Ali Shariati
Ali Shariati Born 23 November 1933
Died 19 June 1975(aged 41)
London, United Kingdom
Religion Twelver Shi'a Islam Spouse Pouran Shariat Razavi Children Ehsan, Sousan, Sara and Mona
Ali Shariati (Persian: علی شريعتی) (November 23, 1933 in Kahak - 1975 in Southampton, England) was an Iranian revolutionary and sociologist, who focused on the sociology of religion. He is held as one of the most influential Iranian intellectuals of the 20th century and has been called the 'ideologue of the Iranian Revolution'.
Ali.. Shariati was born in 1933 in Kahak (a village in Mazinan), a suburb of Sabzevar, found in northeastern Iran. His father, Mohammad-Taqi, was a teacher and Islamic scholar, who opened in 1947 the 'Centre for the Propagation of Islamic Truths' in Mashhad, in the province of Khorasan, a social Islamic forum which became embroiled in the oil nationalisation movement of the 1950s.
In his years at the Teacher's Training College in Mashhad, Shariati came into contact with young people who were from the less privileged economic classes of the society, and for the first time saw the poverty and hardship that existed in Iran during that period. At the same time he was exposed to many aspects of Western philosophical and political thought. He attempted to explain and provide solutions for the problems faced by Muslim societies through traditional Islamic principles interwoven with and understood from the point of view of modern sociology and philosophy. His articles from this period for the Mashhad daily newspaper, Khorasan, display his developing eclecticism and acquaintance with the ideas of modern Islamic and extra-Islamic thinkers such as Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, Muhammad Iqbal, Sigmund Freud and Alexis Carrel.
In 1952 he became a high-school teacher and founded the Islamic Students' Association, which led to his arrest after a demonstration. In 1953, the year of Mossadeq's overthrow, he became a member of the National Front. He received his bachelor's degree from the University of Mashhad in 1955. In 1957 he was arrested again by the police, along with 16 other members of the National Resistance Movement.
Ali Shariati then managed to obtain a scholarship for France, where he continued his graduate studies at the Sorbonne University. There he was considered a brilliant student and elected best student in letters in 1958. He worked towards earning his doctorate in sociology, leaving Paris after get PHD certificate at sociology in 1964. During this period in Paris, Shariati started collaborating with the Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN) in 1959. The next year, he began to read Frantz Fanon and translated an anthology of his work into Persian. Shariati would introduce Fanon's thought into Iranian revolutionary émigrée circles. He was arrested in Paris during a demonstration in honour of Patrice Lumumba, on January 17, 1961.
The same year he joined Ebrahim Yazdi, Mostafa Chamran and Sadegh Qotbzadeh in founding the Freedom Movement of Iran abroad. In 1962 he continued studying sociology and history of religions, and followed the courses of Islamic scholar Louis Massignon, Jacques Berque and the sociologist Georges Gurvitch. He also came to know the philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre that same year, and published in Iran Jalal Al-e Ahmad's book Gharbzadegi (or Occidentosis).
He then returned to Iran in 1964 where he was arrested and imprisoned for engaging in subversive political activities while in France. He was released after a few weeks, at which point he began teaching at the University of Mashhad.
Shariati then went to Tehran where he began lecturing at the Hosseiniye Ershad Institute. These lectures proved to be hugely popular among his students and were spread by word of mouth throughout all economic sectors of the society, including the middle and upper classes where interest in Shariati's teachings began to grow immensely.
Shariati's continued success again aroused the interest of the government, which arrested him, as well as many of his students. Widespread pressure from the populace and an international outcry eventually led to his release after eighteen months in solitary confinement, and he was released on March 20, 1975.
Shariati was allowed to leave the country for England. He died three weeks later in a Southampton hospital under 'mysterious circumstances' although in Ali Rahnema's biography of Shariati, he is said to have died of a fatal heart attack. Shariati is buried next to his beloved Zaynab in Damascus, Syria where Iranian pilgrims frequently visit.
Shariati's works were highly influenced by the Marxism and Third Worldism that he encountered as a student in Paris — ideas that class war and revolution would bring about a just and classless society — from one side, and the Islamic puritanism (or the Islamic Reformation) movements of his time from the other side. He is said to have adopted the idea of Gharbzadegi from Jalal Al-e Ahmad and given it "its most vibrant and influential second life." 
He sought to translate these ideas into cultural symbols of Shiism that Iranians could relate to. He believed Shia should not merely await the return of the 12th Imam but should actively work to hasten his return by fighting for truth, "even to the point of embracing martyrdom", saying "everyday is Ashoura, every place is Karbala." shariati gave the dynamic view about Islam. His ideology about Islam is closely related to Allama Iqbal ideology for example according to both intellectuals change is the greatest law of nature and Islam.
Some quotes attributed to Ali Shariati
About way and goal in success, Shariati says: “Hey, I am thinking of it myself, in this part of world (East), we all do endeavors in praying and are sweating (clear liquid) and this is our situation, frustrated , but on the other part of world (West), they are enjoying in party and drinking liquor (clear liquid) but their situation is that, successful, I do not know that the problem relates to the type of liquid or the way of drinking!”[verification needed]
Shariati's most important books and speeches
- Hajj (The Pilgrimage)
- Marxism and Other Western Fallacies : An Islamic Critique
- Where Shall We Begin?
- Mission of a Free Thinker
- The Free Man and Freedom of the Man
- Extraction and Refinement of Cultural Resources
- Martyrdom (book)
- An approach to Understanding Islam PART1- PART2-
- A Visage of Prophet Muhammad
- A Glance of Tomorrow's History
- Reflections of Humanity
- A Manifestation of Self-Reconstruction and Reformation
- Selection and/or Election
- Norouz, Declaration of Iranian's Livelihood, Eternity
- Expectations from the Muslim Woman
- Horr (Battle of Karbala)
- Red Shi'ism vs. Black Shi'ism
- Jihad and Shahadat
- Reflections of a Concerned Muslim on the Plight of Oppressed People
- A Message to the Enlightened Thinkers
- Art Awaiting the Saviour
- Fatemeh is Fatemeh
- The Philosophy of Supplication
- Religion versus Religion
- Man and Islam - see chapter "Modern Man and His Prisons"
- Arise and Bear Witness
- Islamic revival
- List of Islamic scholars
- Intellectual Movements in Iran
- Religious Intellectualism in Iran
- Islamic Marxism
- Geydar Dzhemal modern philosopher of Politic Islam, revolutionist and social activist
- Abdulaziz Sachedina, a student of Shariati
- Philosophy in Iran
- Jalal Al-e-Ahmad
- Red Shi'ism vs. Black Shi'ism
- Hamid Algar
- ^ 30th Anniversary of the Foundation of the Islamic Republic (but he didn't accept the dominion of clergy), A Revolution Misunderstood. Charlotte Wiedemann
- ^ Gheissari, Ali. 1998. Iranian Intellectuals in the Twentieth Century. Austin: University of Texas Press.
- ^ Abrahamian, Ervand. 1993. ‘Ali Shariati: ideologue of the Iranian revolution’. In Edmund Burke and Ira Lapidus (eds.), Islam, politics, and social movements. Los Angeles: University of California Press. First published in MERIP Reports (January 1982): 25-28.
- ^ Rahnema, Ali. 1998, 2000. An Islamic Utopian. A Political Biography of Ali Shari‘ati. London: I.B. Tauris, p. 35.
- ^ An Islamic Utopian, p. 13.
- ^ An Islamic Utopian, pp. 13-18.
- ^ An Islamic Utopian, pp. 61-68.
- ^ «La jeune génération est un enjeu», interview with Gilles Kepel in L'Express, 26 January 2006 (French)
- ^ Mottahedeh, Roy, The Mantle of the Prophet : Religion and Politics in Iran, p.330
- ^ Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival, Norton, (2006), p.128-9
- Rahnema, Ali. 1998. An Islamic Utopian. A political biography of Ali Shariati. London: I.B. Tauris.
- Gheissari, Ali. 1998. Iranian Intellectuals in the Twentieth Century. Austin: University of Texas Press.
- Hosseini, S A. 2000 "[Ali Shariati's Islamic-Critical School of Thought (1)] مکتب انتقادی دکتر علی شریعتی (1)", Farhang-e-Tose'eh, 9, 44,
- Hosseini, S A. 2000 "[Ali Shariati's Islamic-Critical School of Thought (2)] مکتب انتقادی دکتر علی شریعتی (2)", Farhang-e-Tose'eh, 9, 47. 
- Dr Ali Shariati
- Dr Ali Shariati PDF Books
- History of Persian-iran
- The Official WebSite of Dr Ali Shariati
- Another website dedicated to Ali Shariati
- 'Ali Shari'ati: Between Marx and the Infinite' A review essay of Ali Rahnema's biography of Shari'ati with an extensive discussion on the philosopher's political significance by Nathan Coombs
- Humanity and the People Power: A Tribute to Dr. Ali Shariati by Dr. Mohammad Omar Farooq
- Ali Shariati and the Istehmar Theory by Tarek Heggy
- 'Ali Shari'ati: Islamic Fundamentalist, Marxist Ideologist and Sufi Mystic by David Zeidan
- Critical Religious Reason: Ali Shari'ati on Religion, Philosophy and Emancipation by Abbas Manoochehri
- Dr. Ali Shariati and the Role of Sacred Morality by Daniel Trent Dillon
- The forgotten revolutionary: Ali Shariati by Lawrence Reza Ershaghi
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