National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine


National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

Coordinates: 50°26′41.59″N 30°30′45.07″E / 50.4448861°N 30.5125194°E / 50.4448861; 30.5125194

National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Established November 27, 1918
Location 54 Volodymyr Street Kiev, Ukraine
Website www.nas.gov.ua

The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Національна академія наук України, Natsional’na akademiya nauk Ukrayiny) is the highest government research body in Ukraine and one of the six state academies. Its presidium is located at 57 Volodymyr Street, across the street from the Building of Pedagogical Museum where used to preside the Central Rada during the independence period of 1917-18.

Contents

Activities

Like many other academies, it has a two-tier membership: academicians, and corresponding members. There is also an additional membership category for foreign members. It operates many research institutions, primarily in the fundamental sciences but also in the humanities. The Academy has "state-agency" status, but is self-governing in decisions relating to its own activities. The NASU is responsible for over 90% of all discoveries made in Ukraine, including the transmutation of lithium into helium, the production of heavy water, and the development of a 3-D radar that operates in the decimeter range.

Names

Over the course of its history, the NASU has had 5 different names. From 1918 to 1921, it was known as the Ukrainian Academy of Science (UAS). From 1921 until 1936, it was known as the All-Ukrainian Academy of Science. From 1936 to 1991, it was known as the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian SSR. From 1991 to 1993, it was known as the Academy of Science of Ukraine. Since 1994, it has been known by its current name, National Academy of Science of Ukraine.

Names for the Academy
Ukrainian Academy of Sciences 1918—1921
All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences 1921—1936
Academy of Sciences of the UkrSSR 1936—1991
Academy of Sciences of Ukraine 1991—1993
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine since 1994

History

The National Academy of Science of Ukraine was founded on November 27, 1918 during its First General Assembly, making it one of the oldest national academy in the Soviet Union. The idea to create such an institution came from the Ukrainian Scientific Association in April of 1917. However it was only created during the time of the Ukrainian State, when a proposal by Mykola Vasylenko formed a special committee that from July 9 - September 17, 1918 created a legal document for the creation of the Academy. That document was approved by the Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky on November 14, 1918. At this point it was called the Ukrainian Academy of Science (UAS).

Its first president was the geologist, Vladymyr Vernadsky. The first National Academy consisted of research departments in history and philology, physics and mathematics, as well as social studies. The UAS had 3 departments, 15 commissions, and the National Library. Its founding members were D. Bahali, A. Krymsky, M. Petrov, S. Smal-Stotsky, V. Vernadsky, M. Kashchenko, C. Tymoshenko, P. Tutkovsky, Mikhail Tugan-Baranovsky, F. Taranovsky, V. Kosynsky, and O. Levytsky.

In 1924-5, the Academy held its first election for foreign members. However, none of the candidates were elected. In 1929 two of its members (Serhiy Yefremov and Mykhailo Slabchenko) and 24 corresponding agents (such as Osip Hermaize, Hryhoriy Holoskevych, Andriy Nikovsky, and others) were arrested in accusation to belonging to the non-existing (as later it was established) Union for the Freedom of Ukraine. None of the arrested have ever been released.

Notable members

Through its history, various new departments have been founded by prominent scientists. The following list gives some of the scientist who founded new departments.

  • Mathematics
  • Mechanics
    • O. M. Dynnik and M. O. Lavrentiev
  • Physics
    • K. D. Sinelnikov, L. V. Shubnikov, V. Ye. Lashkariov, O. I. Akhiezer, O. S. Davidov, A. F. Prikhotko, O. Ya. Usikov, and S. Ya. Braude
  • Geology
    • P. A. Tutkovsky
  • Chemistry
    • L. V. Pisarzhevsky, O. I. Brodsky, A. V. Dumansky
  • Biology and Medicine
    • D. K. Zabolotny, O. O. Bohomolets, V. P. Filatov, M. H. Kholodny, and I. I. Schmalhausen.

The NASU has had only eight (8) different presidents:

  • V. I. Vernadsky (1918-1921)
  • M. P. Vasylenko (1921-1922)
  • O. I. Levitsky (1922)
  • V. I. Lipsky (1922-1928)
  • D. K. Zabolotny (1928-1929)
  • O. O. Bohomolets (1930-1946)
  • O. V. Palladin (1946-1962)
  • B. E. Paton (1962-present)

Current status

On 2006, the NASU has 3 sections and 14 departments within them, 6 regional science centers, 173 research institutions, with 43,613 employees including 16,813 researchers; among them, 2,493 with degree of Doktor Nauk (D.Sc.) and 7,996 with degree of Kandidat Nauk (Ph.D.). Currently, the sections and departments are:

Sections

  • Section of Physical-Technical and Mathematical Sciences
    • Department of Mathematics
    • Department of Computer Science
    • Department of Mechanics
    • Department of Physics and Astronomy
    • Department of Earth Sciences
    • Department of Physical and Technical Problems of Materials Science
    • Department of Physical and Technical Problems of Power Engineering
    • Department of Nuclear Physics and Power Engineering
  • Section of Chemical and Biological Sciences
    • Department of Chemistry
    • Department of Biochemistry, Physiology and Molecular Biology
    • Department of General Biology
  • Section of Social Sciences ad Humanities
    • Department of Economics
    • Department of History, Philosophy and Law
    • Department of Philological Studies, Art Criticism, Ethnology

Regional Centers

Regional science centers (SCs) are:

The most of institutions of the Academy (212) are placed in the city of Kiev, following by Kharkiv (39) and Lviv (27). The Academy is represented at least by one institution in most of the oblasts in Ukraine, except Volyn, Rivne, Ternopil, Khmelnytsky, Vinnytsia, and Kirovohrad.

Libraries of Academy

There are 2 national libraries affiliated with the NASU:

Publishers

The NASU has two publishing houses:

  • «Наукова думка» (roughly "Scientific Thought" or "Naukova dumka") and
  • «Академперіодика» (roughly "Academic Periodical" or "Akademperiodyka")

The NASU has made major contributions to most of the major fields of science.

Today, the General Meetings of the NASU consist of 512 academicians and corresponding members along with 130 foreign members.

Awards

Since 2004 the Academy awards its Vernadsky Golden Medal to the most distinguished academicians.

  • 2004 Borys Paton
  • 2005 P. Kostiuk
  • 2006 V. Skopenko
  • 2007 Y. Mytropolsky

See also

  • National Academy of Arts of Ukraine
  • National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine
  • National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine
  • National Academy of Legal Sciences of Ukraine
  • National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine
  • Academy of Mining Sciences of Ukraine
  • Academy of Economic Sciences of Ukraine
  • Academy of Higher Education of Ukraine

External links


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