- Nucleoside-diphosphate kinase
Nucleoside-diphosphate kinases (NDKs, also NDP Kinase, (poly)nucleotide kinases and nucleoside diphosphokinases) are enzymes that catalyze the exchange of phosphate groups between different nucleoside diphosphates. NDK activities maintain an equilibrium between the concentrations of different nucleoside triphosphates such as, for example, when GTP produced in the citric acid (Krebs) cycle is converted to ATP.
The overall effect of NDKs is to transfer a phosphate group from a nucleoside triphosphate to a nucleoside diphosphate. Starting with adenosine diphosphate GTP and ADP, the activity of NDK produces GDP and ATP.
- GTP + ADP → GDP + ATP
Behind this apparently simple reaction is a multistep mechanism. The key steps are
- NDK binds a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP)
- NDK transfers a phosphate to itself, leaving a bound nucleoside diphosphate (NDP)
- NDK releases the bound nucloside diphosphate
- NDK binds another nucleoside diphosphate
- NDK transfers the phosphate to the diphosphate, creating a bound nucleoside triphosphate
- NDK releases the new nucleoside triphosphate
Each step is part of a reversible process, such that the multistep equilibrium is of the following form.
- NDK + NTP ↔ NDK~NTP ↔ NDK-P~NDP ↔ NDK-P + NDP
For the transfer of a phosphate from ATP to GDP, the reaction would proceed as
- NDK + ATP → NDK~ATP → NDK-P~ADP → NDK-P + ADP →
- NDK-P + GDP → NDK-P~GDP → NDK~GTP → NDK + GTP
Prokaryotic NDK forms a functional homotetramer.
There are two isoforms of NDK in humans: NDK-A and NDK-B. Both have very similar structure, and can combine in any proportion to form functional NDK hexamers.
- ^ a b Berg, JM; JL Tymoczko, L Stryer (2002). Biochemistry - 5th Edition. WH Freeman and Company. p. 476. ISBN 0-7167-4684-0.
Transferases: phosphorus-containing groups (EC 2.7) 2.7.1-2.7.4:
(PO4)Hexo- · Gluco- · Fructo- (Hepatic) · Galacto- · Phosphofructo- (1, Liver, Muscle, Platelet, 2) · Riboflavin · Shikimate · Thymidine (ADP-thymidine) · NAD+ · Glycerol · Pantothenate · Mevalonate · Pyruvate · Deoxycytidine · PFP · Diacylglycerol · Phosphoinositide 3 (Class I PI 3, Class II PI 3) · Sphingosine · Glucose-1,6-bisphosphate synthase2.7.2: COOH acceptor
(PO4-nucleoside)RNA nucleotidyltransferaseUridylyltransferaseGlucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase · Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferaseGuanylyltransferasemRNA capping enzymeOther
2.7.8: miscellaneousPhosphatidyltransferasesCDP-diacylglycerol—glycerol-3-phosphate 3-phosphatidyltransferase · CDP-diacylglycerol—serine O-phosphatidyltransferase · CDP-diacylglycerol—inositol 3-phosphatidyltransferase · CDP-diacylglycerol—choline O-phosphatidyltransferaseGlycosyl-1-phosphotransferase 2.7.10-2.7.13: protein kinase
(PO4; protein acceptor)see tyrosine kinasessee serine/threonine-specific protein kinases2.7.12: protein-dual-specificitysee serine/threonine-specific protein kinases2.7.13: protein-histidine
B enzm: 1.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/10/11/13/14/15-18, 2.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8, 2.7.10, 2.7.11-12, 3.1/2/3/4/5/6/7, 18.104.22.168, 3.4.21/22/23/24, 4.1/2/3/4/5/6, 5.1/2/3/4/99, 6.1-3/4/5-6 Purine metabolism Pyrimidine metabolismAnabolismCatabolism Deoxyribonucleotides This enzyme-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.