- Kansas River
The Kansas River (also known as the Kaw) is a
riverin northeastern Kansasin the United States. It is the southwestern-most part of the Missouri River drainage, which is in turn the northwestern-most portion of the extensive Mississippi Riverdrainage. Its name (and nickname) come from the Kanza (Kaw) people who once inhabited the area. The state of Kansas in turn drew its name from the river. [cite web |title = Kansas history page |url =http://www.netstate.com/states/intro/ks_intro.htm |accessdate = 2006-11-28] ["The Encyclopedia of Kansas" (1994) ISBN 403-09921-8]
The river valley averages 2.6 miles (4.2 km) in width, with the widest points being between Wamego and Rossville, where it is up to 4 miles (6.4 km) wide, then narrowing to 1 mile (1.6 km) or less in places below Eudora. Much of the river's watershed is dammed for flood control, but the Kansas River is generally free-flowing and has only minor obstructions, including diversion
weirs and one low impact hydroelectricdam.
Beginning at the confluence of the Republican and
Smoky Hill Rivers, just east of aptly-named Junction City (1030 ft), the Kansas River flows some 170 miles generally eastward to join the Missouri Riverat Kaw Point(730 ft) in Kansas City. Dropping only 320 feet on its journey seaward, the water in the Kansas River falls less than 2 feet per mile. The Kansas River valleyis only 138 miles long; the surplus length of the river is due to meandering across the floodplain. The river's course roughly follows the maximum extent of the Kansan glaciation, and the river likely began as a path of glacial meltwater drainage. [environmental news service]
The Kansas drains 34,423 mi² (89,155 km²) of land in Kansas (almost all of the northern half), along with 16,916 mi² (43,812 km²) in
Nebraska, and 8,775 mi² (22,727 km²) in Colorado, making a total of just over 60,000 mi² (155,000 km²). [http://www.kgs.ku.edu/Publications/KR/kr_geol.html KGS-Kansas River Corridor-Geology ] ] When including the Republican River, the Kansas River system has a length of 743 river miles, making it the 21st longest river in the United States. [ [http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/riversofworld.html Lengths of major rivers ] ] Its highest headwaters are at about 6,000 ft and extend nearly to Limon, Colorado. Much of the drainage of the river lies within the Great Plains, but the river itself exists entirely within the Mid Continent Region. The majority of the rest of the state is drained by the Arkansas (and its tributaties, the Neosho, Cimarron, and Verdigris, all three of which drain into the Arkansas in Oklahoma). A portion of central-eastern Kansas is drained by the Marais des Cygnes River, which then flows into Missourito meet the Missouri River. There is also a small area in the extreme northeast part of the state that drains directly into the Missouri.
The Kansas river flows through what is known as the Stable Interior region. Since this region is near the center of the
North American Plate, it has not experienced any extensive geologic faulting, folding, or mountain building in recent geologic time. In fact, the river flows through limestoneand shalestrata that, except for diagenesis, remain largely undisturbed since deposition beneath the Western Interior Seaway. The age of the rock exposed by the river becomes progressively older as the river moves downstream for two main reasons. First, downstream areas experience more erosionfrom increased flow, and second because the slight uplift of the Ozark dome to the southeast caused the strata in Kansas to dip very slightly to the west. All of the rocks in the area are sedimentary, ranging from Late Pennsylvanian(300 million years ago) to recent, with three minor exceptions. The first is sandand gravelbrought down from the Rocky Mountainswhich have settled in the western extents of the Kansas River basin. Secondly, the retreat of the Kansan glaciationleft behind a combination of ice- and meltwater-deposited sediments known as drifta, a poorly sorted mixture of clay, sand, gravel, and even large boulders that cover parts of the extreme eastern portion of the Kansas River basin. The third is loess, a fine siltthat may have originally been deposited by the melting water of the receding glaciers, then redeposited by the wind. The thickest loess deposits can be found in the northwest and north-central part of the Kansas River basin from southern Nebraska into northwest Kansas, as well as near the river's mouth. Because of the river's shallow depth, slow drainage, high silt contents, and proximity to industrial centers, the Kansas River was ranked as the 21st most polluted water body in the United States. [http://www.ewg.org/reports/dishonorable/ddrivers.html]
*The first map showing the Kansas River is French
cartographer Guillaume de L'Isle's "Carte de la Louisiane," which was drawn about 1718. On it the "Grande Riv [iere] des Cansez" flows into the Missouri Riverat about the 40th parallel. [ [http://www.kshs.org/publicat/khq/1950/50_2_langsdorf.htm A Review of Early Navigation on the Kansas River, Kansas Historical Quarterly, May 1950, Volume 18, No. 2, Kansas State Historical Society ] ] This map, with virtually no changes except for the translation of French into English, was subsequently published by John Senex, a Londoncartographer and engraver, in 1721.
*From June 26 through 29, 1804, The
Lewis and Clark Expeditioncamped at Kaw Pointat the river's mouth. They complimented the scenery and noted the area would be a good location for a fort.
*Native Americans, of course, used the river for transportation long before any Europeans knew of its existence. Their
canoes, and the pirogues of the French fur traders, had a negligible draft and easily navigated the river at any water level. In August, 1819, Maj. Stephen H. Long steered the first steamer into the Kansas river with his 30-ton boat Western Engineer. He made it scarcely a mile up the river before turning back, citing mud bars from the recent floods.
*The mouth of the Kansas River in the
West Bottomsarea of Kansas City (sitting at a longitudeof 94 degrees 36 minutes West) was the basis for the Missouri's western boundary from Iowato Arkansaswhen it became a state in 1821. (Kansas entered the Union in 1861.) South of the Missouri River, that longitude still remains the boundary between Kansas and Missouri. North of the Missouri River, the state of Missouri extended its boundary further to the west in 1836 with the Platte Purchase. The river has moved slightly since this designation, however the state boundary remains the same. This line is known as the Osage Boundary [ [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/KAPPLER/Vol2/treaties/osa0167.htm INDIAN AFFAIRS: LAWS AND TREATIES. Vol. 2, Treaties ] ] .
*From the 1840s through the early 1870s, the southern
ridgelines of the lower section of the Kansas River were the beginnings of the Oregon, California, and Santa Fe trails as they left Kansas City.
*Beginning in 1854, steamboats operated regularly from Kansas City to Lawrence and Topeka, and sometimes as far as
Fort Riley. This traffic continued through the territorial period and the early years of statehood, falling off rapidly about 1860. The last steamer to travel the Kansas was the Alexander Majors, which was chartered in 1866 to run between Kansas City and Lawrence until the railroad bridge at the mouth of the river, which had been destroyed by floods, could be rebuilt. This traffic into statehood gave the Kansas legal status as a navigablestream in the eyes of the Federal government.
*In the 1860s, the country's goods were increasingly transported by the extensive and comparatively efficient
railroadsystem. On February 25, 1864, the state legislature declared the Kansas River nonnavigable, allowing railroad and bridge companies to build bridges and dams without restriction. This law remained in effect until 1913, when, after it had been characterized as "a crime against the public welfare of Kansas", it was finally repealed and the river's status was restored to a navigable stream. The status has not since changed, though modern commercial navigation on the river is largely confined to dredging.
(Listed from mouth upstream.)
Cities and towns
(major cities in bold)
*Kansas City - Elev: 730 ft
*Shawnee - Elev: 732 ft
*Edwardsville - Elev: 741 ft
*Bonner Springs - Elev: 762 ft
*De Soto - Elev: 764 ft
*Lawrence - Elev: 791 ft
*Lecompton - Elev: 820 ft
*Perry - Elev: 820 ft
*Tecumseh - Elev: 840 ft
*Topeka - Elev: 852 ft
*Willard - Elev: 889 ft
*Belvue - Elev: 911 ft
*Wamego - Elev: 955 ft
*St. George - Elev: 977 ft
*Manhattan - Elev: 990 ft
*Ogden - Elev: 1023 ft
*Ft. Riley - Elev: 1040 ft
*Junction City - Elev: 1047 ft
* Big Blue River
Smoky Hill River
Recreation along the Kansas River includes
fishing, canoeingand kayaking, and rowing. There are 18 public access points along the river. [http://www.buildasitefactory.com/index.php?id=123] The [http://www.kansasriver.com Friends of the Kaw] organizes many float trips down the river each year (as well as cleanup efforts), and the [http://koa.com/where/ks/16104/ Lawrence KOA] rents canoes for self-guided trips. At least two rowing teams regularly use the river: The University of Kansasrowing team uses the pool above the Bowersock dam for their exercises, and the [http://www.kcrowing.com/ Kansas City Rowing Club] rows in the final stretches of the river, near its mouth.
On the river
* Kansas City: A few hundred yards downstream from the I-435 bridge, a low
weirdiverts water to an intake for Water District No. 1 of Johnson County. The weir was rebuilt in 2007.
* Lawrence: Bowersock Dam is the largest obstruction on the river. It serves not only to create a standing pool for one of Lawrence's municipal water intakes (the other is Clinton Lake), but also it creates a head for the [http://www.bowersockpower.com Bowersock Mills & Power Company] . At this site, the Bowersock Mills & Power Company operates the only hydroelectric
power stationin Kansas: a 2.5MW, Low Impact Hydropower Facility. The University of Kansas's rowing team uses the pool for its exercises.
* Tecumseh: An easily navigable low head weir that diverts water to the Tecumseh power plant, just downstream from Topeka.
* Topeka: A low weir diverts water to the south bank for a municipal water intake.
Within the watershed
U.S. Army Corps of Engineersand the Bureau of Land Managementoperate many reservoirs within the watershed of the Kansas river for local and Mississippi River floodcontrol, with secondary recreational uses.
List of Kansas rivers
* [http://www.kansasriver.com Friends of the Kaw] [http://www.buildasitefactory.com/index.php?id=123 River access map]
* [http://www.bowersockpower.com Bowersock Mills & Power Company]
* [http://www.lewisandclarkwyco.org/kawpoint.htm Kaw Point]
* [http://www.kvha.org Kaw Valley Heritage Alliance]
* [http://www.streamlink.org/ StreamLinks]
* EPA: [http://www.epa.gov/region07/citizens/cbep/ks_river.htm The Kansas River Watershed Enhancement Initiative]
* [http://www.kansas.net/~tjhittle/kpg_vol2.html USGS]
*" [http://cfpub.epa.gov/surf/huc.cfm?huc_code=10270104 Lower Kansas]
*KWO: [http://www.kwo.org/bacs/klr/klr.htm Kansas-Lower Republican Basin]
*USGS: [http://www.kansas.net/~tjhittle/kvha2map.jpgMap] of Historical and Cultural Sites along the Kaw Valley
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Look at other dictionaries:
Kansas River — Kaw Einzugsgebiet des Kansas River Daten … Deutsch Wikipedia
Kansas River — [ kænzəs rɪvə], rechter Nebenfluss des Missouri im nordöstlichen Kansas, USA, 274 km lang, entsteht bei Junction City durch den Zusammenfluss von Smoky Hill River (900 km lang) und Republican River (679 km lang), mündet in der Metropolitan Area … Universal-Lexikon
Kansas River — Kansas River, Fluß im nordamerikan. Staat Kansas, entsteht aus dem 660 km langen Republican Fork und dem fast ebenso langen Smoky Hill Fork bei Fort Riley (Junction City) und ergießt sich 212 km unterhalb dieses Ortes, in Kansas City, in den… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Kansas River — or Kaw River River, northeastern Kansas, U.S. It flows east and empties into the Missouri River at Kansas City. It is 169 mi (272 km) long, and it drains an area of 61,300 sq mi (158,770 sq km), including northern Kansas and parts of southern… … Universalium
Kansas River — noun a river in northeastern Kansas; flows eastward to become a tributary of the Missouri River • Syn: ↑Kansas, ↑Kaw River • Instance Hypernyms: ↑river • Part Holonyms: ↑Kansas, ↑Sunflower State, ↑ … Useful english dictionary
Kansas — (Details) (Details) … Deutsch Wikipedia
Kansas — • One of the United States of America, is the central state of the Union, to which it was admitted 29 January, 1861 Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Kansas Kansas … Catholic encyclopedia
Kansas (riviere) — Kansas (rivière) Kansas (Kaw) La rivière Kansas près de De Soto … Wikipédia en Français
Kansas City — (spr. ßittĭ), zwei miteinander verwachsene Städte der nordamerikan. Union, am rechten Ufer des Missouri, in den hier der Kansas River mündet: 1) Stadt in der Grafschaft Jackson des Staates Missouri, auf hoher Kalkstein und Lößwand rechts vom… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Kansas — (Kanzas, Konzas), 1) Indianerstamm in Nordamerika, zur Gruppe der Sioux Völkerschaften gehörig, westlich über den Mississippi zurückgedrängt, jetzt namentlich an den Ufern des gleichnamigen Flusses; ungefähr noch 1600 Köpfe stark; 2) (K. River),… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon