Treaty of Hopewell


Treaty of Hopewell

The Treaty of Hopewell may refer to one of three different treaties signed at Hopewell, (the plantation of Andrew Pickens on the Seneca River in northwestern South Carolina) between the United States of America and Native American peoples. The site of Treaty Oak is on Old Cherry Road in Pickens County, South Carolina. There is a historical marker before reaching the bridge crossing Lake Hartwell. There is trail through the forest that goes to the monument. The actual Treaty Oak is no longer alive.

1785

On November 28, 1785, the Treaty of Hopewell was signed between the U.S. representative Benjamin Hawkins and the Cherokee Indians. The treaty laid out a western boundary for white settlement. The treaty gave rise to the sardonic Cherokee phrase of "Talking Leaves", since they claimed that when the treaties no longer suited the Americans, they would blow away like talking leaves. A description of the boundary is found on Article 4 of the accord:

"The boundary allotted to the Cherokees for their hunting grounds, between the said Indians and the citizens of the United States, within the limits of the United States of America, is, and shall be the following, viz. Beginning at the mouth of Duck river, on the Tennessee; thence running north-east to the ridge dividing the waters running into Cumberland from those running into the Tennessee; thence eastwardly along the said ridge to a north-east line to be run, which shall strike the river Cumberland forty miles above Nashville; thence along the said line to the river; thence up the said river to the ford where the Kentucky road crosses the river; thence to Campbell's line, near Cumberland gap; thence to the mouth of Claud's creek on Holstein; thence to the Chimney-top mountain; thence to Camp-creek, near the mouth of Big Limestone, on Nolichuckey; thence a southerly course six miles to a mountain; thence south to the North-Carolina line; thence to the South-Carolina Indian boundary, and along the same south-west over the top of the Oconee mountain till it shall strike Tugaloo river; thence a direct line to the top of the Currohee mountain; thence to the head of the south fork of Oconee river." [Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties (Text of the 1785 Cherokee Treaty).]

1786

Choctaws

On January 3, 1786, the Treaty of Hopewell was signed between U.S. representatives Benjamin Hawkins, Andrew Pickens, and Joseph Martin and members of the Choctaw Nation. Overall, the treaty alloted to the Choctaws a new boundary line described in Article 3:

"The boundary of the lands hereby allotted to the Choctaw nation to live and hunt on, within the limits of the United States of America, is and shall be the following, viz. Beginning at a point on the thirty-first degree of north latitude, where the Eastern boundary of the Natches district shall touch the same; thence east along the said thirty-first degree of north latitude being the southern boundary of the United States of America, until it shall strike the eastern boundary of the lands on which the Indians of the said nation did live and hunt on the twenty-ninth of November, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-two, while they were under the protection of the King of Great-Britain; thence northerly along the said eastern boundary, until it shall meet the northern boundary of the said lands; thence westerly along the said northern boundary, until it shall meet the western boundary thereof; thence southerly along the same to the beginning: saving and reserving for the establishment of trading posts, three tracts or parcels of land of six miles square each, at such places as the United [States] in Congress assembled shall think proper; which posts, and the lands annexed to them, shall be to the use and under the government of the United States of America." [Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties (Text of the 1786 Choctaw Treaty).]

Chickasaws

On January 10, 1786, the Treaty of Hopewell was signed between U.S. representatives Benjamin Hawkins, Andrew Pickens, and Joseph Martin and the Chickasaw Nation. Overall, the treaty alloted to the Chickasaws a new boundary line described in Article 3:

"The boundary of the lands hereby allotted to the Chickasaw nation to live and hunt on, within the limits of the United States of America, is, and shall be the following, viz: Beginning on the ridge that divides the waters running into the Cumberland, from those running into the Tennessee, at a point in a line to be run north-east, which shall strike the Tennessee at the mouth of Duck river; thence running westerly along the said ridge, till it shall st the Ohio; thence down the southern banks thereof to the Mississippi; thence down the same, to the Choctaw line or Natches district; thence along the said line, or the line of the district eastwardly as far as the Chickasaws claimed, and lived and hunted on, the twenty-ninth of November, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-two. Thence the said boundary eastwardly, shall be the lands allotted to the Choctaws and Cherokees to live and hunt on, and the lands at present in the possession of the Creeks; saving and reserving for the establishment of a trading post, a tract or parcel of land to be laid out at the lower port of the Muscle shoals, at the mouth of Ocochappo, in a circle, the diameter of which shall be five miles on the a [blank] river, which post, and the lands annexed thereto, shall be to the use and under the government of the United States of America." [Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties (Text of the 1786 Chikasaw Treaty).]

References

ee also

*Treaty of Holston
*List of Choctaw Treaties
*Treaty of Mount Dexter
*Treaty of Fort St. Stephens
*Treaty of Doak's Stand
*Treaty of Washington City
*Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek
*List of treaties

ources

External links

* [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0008.htm Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties (Text of the 1785 Cherokee Treaty)]
* [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cho0011.htm Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties (Text of the 1786 Choctaw Treaty)]
* [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0014.htm Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties (Text of the 1786 Chickasaw Treaty)]


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