- Eden, New South Wales
Infobox Australian Place|type = town
name = Eden
state = nsw
caption = Port of Eden
postcode = 2551
pop = 3,006
Bega Valley Shire
stategov = Bega
fedgov = Eden-Monaro
dist1 = 478
dir1 = S
dist2 = 555
dir2 = ENE
dist3 = 278
dir3 = SE
dist4 = 54
dir4 = S
Eden is a town in the South Coast region of
New South Wales, Australia. The town, convert|478|km|mi|0|lk=on south of the state capital Sydney near the border with Victoria, is located between Nullica Bay to the south and Calle Calle Bay, the northern reach of Twofold Bay,Guide to Twofold Bay cruises] Eden Tourist Guide] and built on undulating land adjacent to a deep harbour, Snug Cove, on its western boundary. At the 2006 census, Eden had a population of 3,006.Census 2006 AUS|id=UCL128600|name=Eden (Urban Centre/Locality)|accessdate=2008-06-28|quick=on]
The eastern coastline has rugged cliffs at the southern end and a wide, sandy surf beach, Aslings Beach, north of the cliffs. The beach ends at the entrance to Lake Curalo, a safe boating inlet of Twofold Bay. Although the urban settlement of Eden commenced in 1843 the settlement was not officially proclaimed as a township until 20 March 1885. [New South Wales Government Gazette - but need to cite year and volume for this to be a useful reference] The town’s main industries include fishing, forestry, and tourism.
The local Aboriginal people who lived in the region prior to the arrival of Europeans were the
Thauaor Thawa peoplecite web | year = 2004 | url = http://www.smh.com.au/news/New-South-Wales/Eden/2005/02/17/1108500193516.html | title = Eden | work = Travel | publisher = Sydney Morning Herald | accessdate = 2008-01-21] [cite web | last = Tindale | first = Norman | authorlink = Norman Tindale | coauthors = | year = 2003 | url = http://www.samuseum.sa.gov.au/orig/tindale/HDMS/tindaletribes/thaua.htm | title = Thaua (NSW) | work = N.B. Tindale's "Aboriginal Tribes of Australia" (1974) | publisher = South Australian Museum | accessdate = 2008-01-22 |quote = From north of Merimbula south to Green Cape; west to the scarp of the Dividing Range. Their hordes were divided into two groups, the ['Katungal] 'sea coast people,' and the ['Baianbal] or ['Paienbara] , the 'tomahawk people,' those who lived in the forests; a third group, the Bemerigal or mountain people at Cooma belonged to the Ngarigo with whom the inland Thaua had some associations. An early writer whose reference I have lost described the Twofold Bay people, whom he called Nulliker, as diminutive in stature as compared with inland aborigines. They had folded bark canoes and ventured out to sea. Their huts were trigonal bark shelters. ] of the Yuinnation. Whalingships had been operating in the area in 1791. George Bassfirst took shelter in Twofold bay on the return leg of a voyage to Van Diemen's Land( Tasmania) in February, 1798, having noted the bay on the southward leg of this same voyage in December 1797. Later, in September of that year, on a subsequent voyage with Matthew Flinders, he and Flinders surveyed the bay for the first time.cite book | last = Wellings| first = H.P. | title = Eden and Twofold Bay: Discovery, Early History and Points of Interest 1797-1965| edition = Second Edition | id = ISBN 0-646-29410-5] They also made first contact with the local Thawa Aboriginal people on this occasion.
The Australian botanist, Allan Cunningham, landed at Snug Cove in December 1817 so that he could collect botanical specimens from the district.
The first whaling station, for shore whaling, was established in the area by John Raine in 1828. Local Aboriginal people were employed in the whaling industry. In 1834 the Imlay brothers, Alexander, George and Peter, set up a whaling station at Snug Cove. Nearby they built a small slab and bark hut, the first-known building erected at Eden. Sketches of the hut were made by Sir Oswald Brierly in 1842 and by Captain Owen Stanley from H.M.S."Rattlesnake" in 1843.
The graziers from the Monaro district inland from Twofold Bay were seeking a better way to transport their cattle to
Hobart, Tasmania. It was decided to establish cattle-handling facilities and an accompanying township on an appropriate site on Twofold Bay. Thus, in 1834, the Home Government authorised the captain of HMS "Alligator" to seek an appropriate site for a settlement on Twofold Bay. ["The Australian" 3 June 1834] Early in 1835 the Governor of New South Wales, Governor Richard Bourke, visited Twofold Bay and the site of the proposed new settlement on board H.M.S."Hyacinth". ["Australian" 13 February 1835, 13 March 1835]
Eventually the area for the proposed town, to be called Eden, was surveyed in 1842 by Mr Thomas Townsend, the Government Surveyor. The main street, Imlay Street, was named after the Imlay brothers who were early pioneers to the district. Other streets were named after Lieutenant Flinders, George Bass, Queen Victoria and her consort, Prince Albert. A wharf was built out into a cove, now named Cattle Bay, from a site on the western edge of Eden, where cattle could be grazed prior to their being loaded onto the ships. Cattle were also grazed on Lookout Point until 1853, then this land was subdivided for housing.
Eden was named after
George Eden, 1st Earl of Auckland, the British Secretary for the Colonies, Baron Auckland, whose family name was Eden. After the town plan was finalised the first blocks were auctioned on the 9th March, 1843. The land was sold to Thomas Aspinall, Benjamin Boyd, S. Clinton, Lewes Gordon, W. Hirst, James Kirwan, J.P. Robinson and T.A. Townsend.
The first postmaster was appointed in 1843 but the first post office did not open until 1847. The Customs House was built in Eden in 1848. Earlier the first customs officer was appointed in 1846 but he was located at East Boyd initially, until the customs house was constructed.
Eden grew in the 1850s following the decline of nearby
Boydtown, and the discovery of goldin Kiandra, which led to the 1859-1860 gold rush. For a few hectic months hundreds of gold seekers landed at Eden, replenished their supplies then headed for Kiandra. With the winter snow falls at Kiandra came the hurried exodus of those same people keen to leave the district as soon as possible. For a short period Eden flourished, only to quickly return to its usual quiet pace again.
In the 1850s there were four hotels in Eden. One of these hotels, the "Crown and Anchor", still stands. It is no longer licenced but it still provides accommodation to travellers. Just south of this building is another built in 1850 as a commercial premises. Various businesses occupied the site. The building is now used as a private dwelling. The first government school started in 1857. The school attached to St Joseph's Roman Catholic church commenced in 1888. There were also several private tutors in Eden.
Because Eden is
equidistantbetween Sydneyand both Melbourneand Tasmania, the port town was considered as a location for the Australian capital following Australian Federation in 1901.Fact|date=April 2008 However, the ‘Limestone Plains’ in Southern New South Wales were chosen instead as the location of the new city of Canberra.
Whaling declined in the 1920s and ended in 1930.Fact|date=April 2008
From its inception Eden was located in the County of Auckland, named earlier after the Earl of Auckland from whom Eden also took its name. However, the County of Auckland was not considered to be within the bounds of the colony of New South Wales until many years after the settlement of Eden commenced.
The town of Eden lies within the
Bega ValleyShire Council local government area. It is within the federal electorate of Eden-Monaro, which has for a long time been a key marginal seat, resulting in significant focus by the media and political parties during election campaigns. It is represented in the New South Wales Legislative Assemblyby the electorate of Monaro.
Horse-racing commenced in Eden in the mid 1850's and continued until the mid 1920's. The racecourse was located on the northern bank of Lake Curalo. A number of industries are based in the town in the mid 2000's. These are mainly related to the tourist industry and include a wide variety of accommodation, places to eat and entertainment, especially fishing and sailing. As well, cruises of Twofold Bay and for whale-watching leave the Eden Wharf located in Snug Cove. The cruise of Nullica Bay, Twofold Bay, allows close views of the two major wharves mentioned in the article on Twofold Bay. Tourism contributes $180 million
Australian dollars yearly to the economy of the shire – which includes Bega and several other towns. The area receives 550,000 visitors annually. Many people visit Eden for whale watchingas whales migrate from Antarcticto tropical waters in June and July, and back again later in the year.
A significant fishing fleet is based in the harbour (Snug Cove). A
tunacannery opened in the town in 1949. It was closed in 1999, at the cost of many jobs. Saw-milling of timber has also been an important local industry for most of the life of the town. For over one hundred years the collection and export of wattle-bark was also a major local industry. Whalingplayed a very important role in the town’s economy for over 100 years before its decline in the area in the 1920s and its end in 1930. Eden’s ‘Killer Whale Museum’ informs visitors of the history of whaling in the area and the role of orcas (killer whales) in herding whales into the harbour and helping whalers kill them. The whalers rewarded the orcas by allowing them to eat the lips and tongues of the dead whales.
Port of Eden
The Port of Eden is one of two regional ports in
New South Walesadministered by the New South Wales Maritime Authority, the other is at Yamba on the North Coast. The Port of Eden is the largest fishing port in NSW. The major export handled by the port is woodchips. The port is shared with the Department of Defence who have constructed a large wharf for the servicing of their warships. The port also handles cruise ships. [cite web | year = 2006 | url = http://www.eden.nsw.gov.au/ | title = Port of Eden | work = New South Wales Regional Ports | publisher = New South Wales Maritime Authority| accessdate = 2006-12-14]
From the 1850s to 1950s the port was serviced by the
Illawarra Steam Navigation Company.
Old Tom- The leader of a pack of killer whales who helped whalers in the port of Eden to capture baleen whalesin return for the whales lips and tongues as food. Old Tom's skeleton is on display in Eden's Killer Whale Museum, and it is the only complete killer whale skeleton on display in the southern hemisphere.
Australian Rules Footballteam is the Eden WhalersFC.
* [http://www.begavalley.nsw.gov.au/About/Snapshot/our_towns.htm Bega Valley Shire Council]
* [http://www.eden.nsw.gov.au/ Port of Eden website]
* [http://www.thebegavalley.org.au/eden.html Eden Community Website]
* [http://www.smh.com.au/news/New-South-Wales/Eden/2005/02/17/1108500193516.html Sydney Morning Herald Tourism Page]
* [http://www.killersofeden.com Killers of Eden]
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