- Port of Tilbury
The Port of Tilbury is located on the
River Thamesat Tilburyin Essex, England. It is the principal port for London; as well as being the main United Kingdomport for the handling the importation of paper. There are extensive facilities for containers, grain, and other bulk cargoes. There are also facilities for the importation of cars. It forms part of the wider Port of London.
The Port of Tilbury lies on the north shore of the River Thames, convert|25|mi|km below London Bridge, at a point where the river makes a loop southwards, and where its width narrows to 800 yards. The loop is part of the Thames lower reaches: within the
meanderwas a huge area of marshland which had, since Roman times, been embankedFact|date=August 2008. Gravesendon the opposite shore had long been a port of entry for shipping, all of which had used the river itself for loading and unloading of cargo and passengers. There was also a naval dockyard at Northfleet. The new deepwater docks were an extension of all that maritime activity.
The original docks of London, all built close to the City, were opened in stages by what was to become the East and West India Docks Company (E&WIDC) at the beginning of the 19th century. With the coming of the railways and increasing ship size, location close to the centre of London became less important than access to deep water, unrestricted sites and reduction in time spent travelling up the winding Thames. The Company had long been in competition with their rival, the London and St Catherine Dock Company (L&StCDC), and had been doing all it could to dominate it. The opening of the
Royal Albert Dockby the L&StCDC, with its deepwater quayage, in 1880 had given access to the Thames at Gallions Reach, convert|11|mi|km by river below London Bridge and downstream of the then principal London docks. The E&IWDC were forced to retaliate [ [http://www.pla.co.uk/display_fixedpage.cfm/id/238#more The rivalry between the two companies] ] .
In 1882, an
Act of Parliamentallowed the latter to construct the docks at Tilbury; work began a fortnight later, and the first vessel to enter the docks was on 17 April 1886. Its opening took place at the beginning of the steamship era, and its location soon proved to be the correct one [ [http://www.portcities.org.uk/london/server/show/ConFactFile.82/Tilbury-Dock.html Timeline of Tilbury Docks] ] .
The new docks
The original docks consisted of a tidal basin on Gravesend Reach opposite
Northfleet, connected by a lock to a main dock with three side branches named East, Central and West Branch docks. Between the tidal basin and Main Dock were two dry docks.
In 1909 Tilbury, along with the upstream docks, became part of the newly-established Port of London Authority (PLA).
In 1921, and again in 1929, the PLA carried out major improvements. These included a new lock convert|1000|ft|m long and convert|110|ft|m|abbr=on wide, linking the docks directly to the Thames to the west at Northfleet Hope, and a third dry dock, 752ft long and convert|110|ft|m|abbr=on wide.
During the 1960s, at the time when the upstream docks were closing, the PLA further extended the Tilbury dock facilities. Between 1963-1966a huge fourth branch dock, running north from Main Dock for nearly a mile, was constructed. The tidal basin was closed and eventually filled in. In 1969 a £6m riverside grain terminal on Northfleet Hope (at the time the largest in Europe) was brought into use. By the early 1980s Tilbury was the last set of enclosed docks in operation by the PLA.
The first container service began in 1970, and Tilbury was soon to become the largest container port in the UK; in 1978 a deep water riverside berth was opened for large container ships on reclaimed land at Northfleet Hope. [ [http://www.portcities.org.uk/london/server/show/ConFactFile.82/Tilbury-Dock.html Timeline] ]
The port today
In 1992 the port was privatised and is part of the
Forth Portsorganisation, the PLA retaining the role of managing the tidal Thames.
Today the port handles a variety of bulk cargo, timber, cars and container traffic and remains, along with
Southamptonand Felixstowe, one of Britain's three major container ports. It is the main UK port for importing paper including newsprint.
Port of Tilbury Police, among the oldest of such forces in the UK, are responsible for the security of the Port.
London Cruise Terminal
One of the shipping lines using the docks was the P&O. In 1916, Tilbury became the only port in the PLA to serve cruise liners, when, in 1916, it opened berths specifically for the P&O within the dock complex. With the need for expanded facilities, a large new passenger landing stage was constructed in the Thames jointly by the PLA and the London Midland and Scottish Railway, with rail connections. It was opened in May 1930 by
Ramsay MacDonald. Tilbury operated as London's passenger liner terminal until the 1960s. For many people Tilbury was their point of emigration to Australia under an assisted passage scheme established and operated by the Australian Government. The ' Ten Pound Poms' as they were known in Australia, embarked on to ships such as RMS Mooltanand set off for a new life. Tilbury was also a port of entry for many immigrants; among them being a large group of West Indians on the Empire Windrushin 1948. The passenger landing stage was reopened by the Port of Tilbury group as the London Cruise Terminal, though no longer served by the railway.
Near the Dockmaster's office, on New Lock, is a memorial to Captain Peter de Neumann, GM, who was killed there in an accident on 16 September 1972.
Rolf Harrisvisited the Docks during a TV episode of "Rolf On Art", when he recreated J M W Turner's famous painting The Fighting Temeraire. [cite news| last =| first =| coauthors =| title =Rolf Harris helps to recall historic event on Thames| work =Port of London| pages =p. 3| language =| publisher =Port of London Authority| date =Nov/Dec 2004|url =http://www.portoflondon.co.uk/pdfs/pp/port_news_dec_04.pdf| accessdate =2007-12-26]
Tilbury Docks on film
The port has been used as a location for several films.
The Docks stood in for Venetian waterways during the boat-chase scene in
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade[cite web| last =Reeves| first =Tony| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade| work =The Worldwide Guide to Movie Locations| publisher =Titan| date =| url =http://www.movie-locations.com/movies/i/indie_last.html| format =| doi =| accessdate =2007-12-26] ; and scenes from Batman Beginswere also filmed there, [cite web| last =Reeves| first =Tony| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =Batman Begins| work =The Worldwide Guide to Movie Locations| publisher =Titan| date =| url =http://www.movie-locations.com/movies/b/batmanbegins.html| format =| doi =| accessdate =2007-12-26] as was a scene in the 2004 Jude Lawfilm Alfie. [cite news| last =| first =| coauthors =| title =Tilbury: Alfie comes to Essex| work =| pages =| language =| publisher =Clacton and Frinton Gazette| date = 2004-08-17| url =http://archive.clactonandfrintongazette.co.uk/2004/8/17/126794.html| accessdate =2007-12-26] The Docks were also used in 1975 as the setting of John Wayne's smuggler-busting operation in Brannigan.cite web| last =| first =| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =Filming in Thurrock| work =Thurrock Heritage Files| publisher =Thurrock Council| date =| url =http://www.thurrock-community.org.uk/council/heritage/content.php?page=factfiles_details&id=44| format =| doi =| accessdate =2007-12-26]
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