Fokker D.XXI


Fokker D.XXI

Infobox Aircraft
name=D.XXI


caption=
type=Fighter
manufacturer=Fokker
designer=Anthony Fokker
first flight= 27 March, 1936
introduced=
retired=
status=
primary user= Finnish Air Force
more users= Dutch Air Force Danish Air Force
produced=
number built=
program cost=
unit cost=
developed from=
variants with their own articles=
The Fokker D.XXI fighter was designed in 1935 for use by the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army Air Force (ML-KNIL). [ [http://www.zap16.com/mil%20fact/Fokker%20D%20XXI.htm D.XX1] ] As such, it was designed as a cheap and small, but rugged aircraft, which had respectable performance for its time. Entering service in the early years of World War II, it provided yeoman work for both the Luchtvaartafdeling (Dutch Army Aviation Group) and the Finnish Air Force, and a few were built by the Carmoli factory before the factory fell into Nationalist hands during the Spanish Civil War.

Design and development

The Fokker D.XXI was a low wing monoplane with a steel tube fuselage covered in large part by fabric. Following some of the standard Fokker design practice, it had wooden wings and a fixed spatted undercarriage. Power was provided by a Bristol Mercury radial driving a 3-blade two pitch airscrew. When it entered service in 1938 it was a quantum leap forward for the Dutch Army Aviation Group though. Until then its fighter force had consisted of aging biplanes with open cockpits. The new Fokker proved to be an extremely sturdy aircraft capable of attaining a speed of 700 km/h in a dive.

Operational history

In 1936 a few were used by the Spanish Republic. Although the order by the ML-KNIL was cancelled, the Luchtvaartafdeeling (Dutch Army Air Force before World War II) placed an order of 36 aircraft, which were all delivered in time to participate in the war against the Germans in May of 1940. The Fokker D.XXI, although much slower and more lightly armed than the Bf 109, performed surprisingly well in dogfights, due to its maneuverability. Nonetheless, the numerical disparity of the Luchtvaartafdeeling compared to the Luftwaffe resulted in the destruction of most Dutch Fokker D.XXI fighters during the campaign. Some were captured during and after May 15th, but their fates, apart from their capture, are unknown. [ [http://www.xs4all.nl/~fbonne/warbirds/ww2htmls/fokkdxxi.html WW2 Warbirds: the Fokker D.XXI - Frans Bonné] ]

The Fokker D.XXI performed better and for much longer in the Finnish Air Force, which had acquired a number of licence-built fighters prior to the start of the Winter War. Against the aircraft of the Soviet Air Force, the Fokker was more evenly matched, and its rugged design with a radial engine and fixed undercarriage made it very suitable for Finnish conditions. Later in the war, as newer models of Soviet fighters appeared, the Fokker D.XXI was underpowered and too lightly armed (with only four .30 caliber machine guns) to compete. Plans to arm the Fokkers with 20 mm cannons were dropped and only one fighter was armed as such (two 20 mm cannons and two .30 machine guns). Another fighter was equipped with retractable landing gear, but due to bad performance, wasn't continued in the series. During the Continuation War (1941-44) the Finnish State Aircraft Factory (Valtion Lentokonetehdas, VL) also built some fifty D.XXIs with the Swedish-built Pratt & Whitney R-1535 Twin Wasp Junior as the Bristol Mercury was in short supply. These can be identified by their longer cockpit glazing, smooth cowl, and large ventral air intake under the cowl.

Variants

* D.XXI : Single-seat fighter aircraft.
* Project 150 : Proposed version powered by a Bristol Hercules radial piston engine. Not built.
* Project 151 : Proposed version powered by a Rolls-Royce Merlin piston engine. Not built.
* Project 152 : Proposed version powered by a Daimler-Benz DB.600H engine. Not built.

Operators

;DNK
*Danish Army Air Corps received 7 aircraft and built 15 on license.;FIN
*Finnish Air Force received 7 aircraft and built 90 on license.
**No. 10 Squadron, Finnish Air Force
**No. 12 Squadron, Finnish Air Force
**No. 14 Squadron, Finnish Air Force
**No. 24 Squadron, Finnish Air Force
**No. 26 Squadron, Finnish Air Force
**No. 30 Squadron, Finnish Air Force
**No. 32 Squadron, Finnish Air Force;flag|Germany|Nazi
*Luftwaffe operated an unknown number of captured Dutch aircraft.;NLD
*Dutch Army Aviation Group received 36 aircraft.;flagicon|Spain|1931 Spanish Republic
*Spanish Republican Air Force

Popular culture

A converted North American Harvard trainer masqueraded as a Fokker D.XXI for the Paul Verhoeven movie Soldier of Orange (1977).

pecifications (D.XXI)

aircraft specifications
plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=prop
ref=Lentäjän Näkökulma & Thulinista Hornetiin
crew=One, pilot
capacity=
length main=8.20 m
length alt= 26 ft 11 in
span main=11.00 m
span alt= 36 ft 1 in
height main=2.95 m
height alt= 9 ft 8 in
area main=
area alt=
airfoil=
empty weight main=1,594 kg
empty weight alt=3,511 lb
loaded weight main=
loaded weight alt=
useful load main=
useful load alt=
max takeoff weight main=1,970 kg
max takeoff weight alt=4,399 lb
more general=
engine (prop)=Bristol Mercury VIII
type of prop=air-cooled, 9-cylinder, radial
number of props=1
power main=619 kW
power alt=830 hp
power original=
max speed main= 460 km/h
max speed alt= 285 mph
cruise speed main=
cruise speed alt=
stall speed main=
stall speed alt=
never exceed speed main=
never exceed speed alt=
range main=930 km
range alt=502 nm, 574 mi
ceiling main=9,350 m
ceiling alt=30,675 ft
climb rate main=6,000 m in 7 min 30 sec
climb rate alt=19,680 ft
loading main=
loading alt=
power/mass main=405 hp/t
power/mass alt=
more performance=
armament=
* 4 × 7.92 mm FN Browning M36 machine guns
avionics=

ee also

aircontent
related=

similar aircraft=
* Nakajima Ki-27

sequence=

lists=
* List of fighter aircraft

see also=

References

Notes

Bibliography

* De Jong, Peter. "Le Fokker D.21 (Collection Profils Avions 9)" (in French). Outreau, France: Éditions Lela Presse, 2005. ISBN 2-914017-26-X.
* Eberspacher, Warren. "Fokker D-XXI, Volume 1: Dutch and Danish Aircraft (International Squadron Monograph No.1)". St. Paul, MN: Phalanx Publishing Co. Ltd., 1994. ISBN 1-883809-05-3.
* Gerdessen, Frits. "Nederlandse Militaire Luchtvaartt VI: Fokker D-XXI (deel 2)" (in Dutch). Spijkenisse, the Netherlands: Stichting Vrienden van het Militaire Luchtvaart Museum/Afdeling Luchtvaartkennis KNVvL, 1991. No ISBN.
* Gerdessen, Frits and Boerman, Luuk. "Fokker D.XXI: History, Camouflage and Markings - Operations of the LVA/ML Fokker D.XXI (Dutch Profile 5)" (bilingual Dutch/English). Zwammerdam, the Netherlands: Dutch Decal, 2007. No ISBN.
* Green, William. "D-XXI - Ancestor of Alliance". "RAF Flying Review" Vol. XVII, No. 12.
* Green, William. "Four Guns and a Canopy". "RAF Flying Review" Vol. 19, No. 2.
* Green, William. "The 'Halfway-House' Fokker". "AIR Enthusiast" August 1971.
* Green, William. "The Last of the Fighting Fokkers". "RAF Flying Review".
* Green, William. "Warplanes of the Second World War, Volume One: Fighters". London: Macdonald & Co. (Publishers) Ltd. 1960 (tenth impression 1972). ISBN 0-356-01445-2.
* Green, William. "Warplanes of the Second World War, Volume Three: Fighters". London: Macdonald & Co. (Publishers) Ltd. 1961 (Seventh impression 1973). ISBN 0-356-01447-9.
* Heinonen, Timo. "Thulinista Hornetiin - 75 vuotta Suomen ilmavoimien lentokoneita" (in Finnish). Tikkakoski, Keski-Suomi, Finland : Keski-Suomen ilmailumuseo, 1992, ISBN 951-95688-2-4.
* Hooftman, Hugo. "Fokker D-XXI (Nederlandse Vliegtuig Encyclopedie 5)" (in Dutch). Bennekom, the Netherlands: Cockpit-Uitgeverij, 1978.
* Kamphuis, G.H. "The Fokker D.XXI (Aircraft in Profile number 63)". Leatherhead, Surrey, UK: Profile Publications Ltd., 1966.
* Keskinen, Kalevi; Stenman, Kari and Niska, Klaus. "Fokker D.XXI (Suomen Ilmavoimien Historia 3)" (in Finnish, with English summary) . Espoo, Finland: Tietoteos, 1974 (2nd edition 1977). ISBN 951-9035-15-X.
**4th improved edition republished in two part as:
** Keskinen, Kalevi and Stenman, Kari. "Fokker D.XXI [Mercury] (Suomen Ilmavoimien Historia 3a)" (in Finnish). Helsinki, Finland: Hobby Kustannus Oy, 2000. ISBN 952-5334-02-3.
** Keskinen, Kalevi and Stenman, Kari. "Fokker D.XXI [Wasp] (Suomen Ilmavoimien Historia 3b)" (in Finnish). Helsinki, Finland: Hobby Kustannus Oy, 2000. ISBN 952-5334-03-1.
* Ledwoch, Janusz. "Fokker D.XXI (Wydawnictwo Militaria 5)" (in Polish). Warsawa, Poland: Wydawnictwo Militaria, 1995. ISBN 83-86209-34-8.
* Raunio, Jukka. "Lentäjän näkökulma 2" (in Finnish). Forssa, Finland, 1993. ISBN 951-96866-0-6.
* Skulski, Przemysław. "Fokker D.21 (Seria "Pod Lupą" 10)" (in Polish, with English summary). Wrocław, Poland: Ace Publication, 1999. ISBN 83-86153-79-2.
* Taylor, John W.R. "Fokker D.XXI" "Combat Aircraft of the World from 1909 to the present". New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969. ISBN 0-425-03633-2.
* Toll, Karl. "The Last of the Fighting Fokkers". "Airpower" January 1982.

External links

* [http://www.sci.fi/~fta/fr-fin-1.htm Fokker D.XXIs to Finland]
* [http://aircraftwalkaround.hobbyvista.com/fokkerxxi/fokkerxxi.htm Fokker D.XXI Walk-around (photographs)]


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