- Community mental health services
Community mental health services (CMHS) support or treat people with
mental disorders(mental illness or mental healthdifficulties) while they continue to live in their own homes, rather than being admitted to more remote institutions such as psychiatric hospitals(asylums).
Community services include
Supported housingwith full or partial supervision(including halfway houses), psychiatric wards of general hospitals(including partial hospitalization), local primary caremedical services, day centers or clubhouses and self-help groups for mental health.
They may be provided by government organizations and
mental health professionals, including specialized teams providing services across a geographical area, such as Assertive community treatmentand Early intervention teams. They may also be provided by private or charitable organizations. They may be based on peer supportand the consumer/survivor movement.
World Health Organizationstates that community mental health services are more accessibleand effective, lessen social exclusion, and are likely to have less possibilities for the neglect and violations of human rightsthat were often encountered in mental hospitals. However, WHO notes that in many countries, the closing of mental hospitals has not been accompanied by the development of community services, leaving a service vacuumwith far too many not receiving any care. [World Health Organization press release (2007) [http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/notes/2007/np25/en/index.html Community mental health services will lessen social exclusion, says WHO] ]
New legal powers have developed in some countries, such as the
United States, to supervise and ensure compliance with treatment of individuals living in the community, known as Outpatient commitmentor Assisted outpatient treatment or Community treatment orders.
The 19th to mid-20th century saw a large expansion of the number and size of asylums in Western countries. Originally based on principles of
moral treatment, they were ofen situated in rural areas or on the outskirts of cities. Following human rightsand financial concerns, a deinstitutionalizationmovement led to the closing down of many asylums. Community services (known in the UK as Care in the community) were meant to take their place, but were often were poorly funded, uncoordinated and unable to meet complex needs. Homelessness and prison were the result for many. Expectations that community care would lead to fuller social integration were not achieved, with many remaining without employment, having limited social contacts and often living in sheltered environments that still lead to institutionalization. Services in the community sometimes provided a new ghetto, where service users meet each other but have little contact with the rest of the community. It has been said that instead of "community psychiatry", reforms established a "psychiatric community".Fakhourya, W. & Priebea, S. (2007) [http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1476179307001085 Deinstitutionalization and reinstitutionalization: major changes in the provision of mental healthcare] Psychiatry Volume 6, Issue 8, August, Pages 313-316 doi:10.1016/j.mppsy.2007.05.008]
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