- Intensive pig farming
Intensive piggeries (or hog lots) are a type of
factory farmspecialized for the raising of domestic pigs up to slaughter weight. In this system of pig production, grower pigs are housed indoors in group-housing or straw-lined sheds, whilst pregnant sows are confined in sow stalls ( gestation crates) and give birth in farrowing crates.
The use of sow stalls for pregnant sows has resulted in lower birth production costs, however, this practice has led to more significant
animal welfareconcerns. Many of the world’s largest producers of pigs (U.S., Canada, Denmark) use sow stalls, but some nations (e.g., the UK) and some US States(e.g., Floridaand Arizona) have banned them.
Intensive piggeries are generally large warehouse-like buildings. Indoor pig systems allow the pig’s condition to be monitored, ensuring minimum fatalities and increased productivity. Buildings are ventilated and their temperature regulated. Most domestic pig varieties are susceptible to heat stress, and all pigs lack sweat glands and cannot cool themselves. Pigs have a limited tolerance to high temperatures and heat stress can lead to death. Maintaining a more specific temperature within the pig-tolerance range also maximizes growth and growth to feed ratio. Indoor piggeries have allowed pig farming to be undertaken in countries or areas with unsuitable climate or soil for outdoor pig raising (e.g., Australia). [ [http://www.australianpork.com.au/index.cfm?menuid=31E2978C-B0D0-36D2-5CD946CD05CCD5DE Australian pork page on Pig welfare] ] In an intensive operation pigs will lack access to a wallow (mud), which is their natural cooling mechanism. Intensive piggeries control temperature through ventilation or drip water systems (dropping water to cool the system).
Pigs are naturally omnivorous and are generally fed a combination of grains and protein sources (soybeans, or
meat and bone meal). Larger intensive pig farms may be surrounded by farmland where feed-grain crops are grown. Alternatively, piggeries are reliant on the grains industry. Pig feed may be bought packaged or mixed on-site. The intensive piggery system, where pigs are confined in individual stalls, allows each pig to be allotted a portion of feed. The individual feeding system also facilitates individual medication of pigs through feed. This has more significance to intensive farming methods, as the close proximity to other animals enables diseases to spread more rapidly. To prevent disease spreading and encourage growth, drug programs such as antibiotics, vitamins, hormones and other supplements are preemptively administered.
Indoor systems, especially stalls and pens (i.e., ‘dry,’ not straw-lined systems) allow for the easy collection of waste. In an indoor intensive pig farm, manure can be managed through a lagoon system or other waste-management system. However, waste smell remains a problem which is difficult to manage. [ [http://asae.frymulti.com/abstract.asp?aid=15521&t=2 Spatial Variability Of Odor Emissions From Anaerobic Piggery Lagoons In Queensland] ]
The way animals are housed in intensive systems varies. Breeding sows will spend the bulk of their time in sow stalls (also called gestation crates) during pregnancy or farrowing crates, with litter, until market.
Piglets can be subjected to a range of treatments including castration, tail docking to reduce tail biting, teeth clipped (to reduce injuring their mother's nipples) and their ears notched to assist identification. Treatments are usually made without pain killers. Weak
runts may be slain shortly after birth.
Piglets also may be
weaned and removed from the sows at between two and five weeks old [ [http://nationalhogfarmer.com/mag/farming_revisiting_weaning_age/ Revisiting weaning age] ] and placed in sheds. However, grower pigs - which comprise the bulk of the herd - are usually housed in alternative indoor housing, such as batch pens. During pregnancy, the use of a stall may be preferred as it facilitates feed-management and growth control. It also prevents pig aggression (e.g., tail biting, ear biting, vulva biting, food stealing). Group pens generally require higher stockmanship skills. Such pens will usually not contain straw or other material. Alternatively, a straw-lined shed may house a larger group (i.e., not batched) in age groups.
Many countries have introduced laws to regulate treatment of farmed animals. In the USA, the federal Humane Slaughter Act [ [http://www.animallaw.info/statutes/stusfd7usca1901.htm USA Federal Humane Slaughter Act] ] requires pigs to be stunned before slaughter, although compliance and enforcement is questioned. There is concern from animal liberation/welfare groups that the laws have not resulted in a prevention of animal suffering and that there are "repeated violations of the Humane Slaughter Act at dozens of slaughterhouses". [ [http://www.awionline.org/pubs/Quarterly/summer2001/hsaintroduced.htm Animal Welfare Institute Quarterly - Humane Slaughter Act Resolution Introduced] ]
Dispute regarding farming methods
Many industry experts advocate intensive swine farming. Regardless, intensive piggeries have been increasingly criticized in preference of
free rangesystems. Such systems usually refer not to a group-pen or shedding system, but to outdoor farming systems. Those that support outdoor systems usually do so on the ground that they are more animal friendly and better allow pigs to experience natural activities (e.g., wallowing in mud, relating to young, rooting soil). Outdoor systems are usually less economically productive due to increased space requirements and higher morbidity, (though, when dealing with the killing of piglets and other groups of swine, the methods are the same.) They also have a range of environmental impacts, such as denitrification of soil [ [http://www.edpsciences.org/articles/agro/pdf/2002/07/19.pdf The fate of nitrogen in outdoor pig production] ] [ [http://www.kursus.kvl.dk/shares/ea/03Projects/32gamle/_2002/pig%20farming.pdf Investigation of carbon and nitrogen cycles in pig farming] ] and erosion. Outdoor pig farming may also have welfare implications, for example, pigs kept outside may get sunburnt and are more susceptible to heat stress than in indoor systems, where air conditioning or similar can be used [ [http://www.depts.ttu.edu/porkindustryinstitute/research/MANAGING%20HEAT%20STRESS%20IN%20OUTDOOR%20PIGS.htm Managing Heat Stress in Outdoor pigs] ] [ [http://www.thepigsite.com/articles/5/housing-and-environment/669/heat-stress-index-chart-for-swine-producers Heat stress index chart for swine producers] ] . Outdoor pig farming may also increase the incidence of worms and parasites in pigs [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=9193950&dopt=Abstract Transmission dynamics of helminth parasites of pigs on continuous pasture: Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis] ] [ [http://www.thepigsite.com/pighealth/article/411/management-control-and-prevention Pig Management Control and Prevention] ] . Management of these problems depends on local conditions, such as geography, climate, and the availability of skilled staff.
Transition of an indoor production system to an outdoor system presents obstacles. Some breeds of pig commonly used in intensive farming have been selectively bred to suit intensive conditions. Lean pink-pigmented pigs are unsuited for outdoor agriculture, as they suffer sunburn and heat stress. In certain environmental conditions – for example, a temperate climate – outdoor pig farming of these breeds is possible. However, there are many other breeds of pig suited to outdoor rearing, as they have been used in this way for centuries, such as
Gloucester Old Spotand Oxford Forest. Following the UKban of sow stalls, the British Pig Executive indicates that the pig farming industry in the UK has declined. [ [http://www.bpex.org/technical/general/pdf/marketupdate-sept05.pdf British Pig Executive market update September 2005] ] . The increase in production costs has led to British pig-products being more expensive than those from other countries, leading to increased imports and the need to position UK pork as a product deserving a price premium.
Criticism of intensive piggeries
Factory farmingmethods have come under increasing public scrutiny due to animal welfareand environmental concerns.
ow breeding systems
Organized campaigns by animal activists have focused on the use of the sow stalls, such as the 'gestation crate' and 'farrowing crate'. The sow stall has now been banned in the UK, certain U.S. states, and other European countries, although it remains part of pig production in much of the U.S. and European Union.
A ‘sow stall’ is the name of the confinement system for adult sows. It usually does not allow the pig to turn around, although it can sit or lie down [http://www.factoryfarming.com/gallery/gestcrate01.htm] . The major reason for their use is that it prevents attacks towards pregnant sows, thus reducing miscarriages and increasing litter survival and the farmer’s productivity.
Only the sows selected for breeding (i.e., pregnant sows) will spend time in a sow stall. In an intensive system, the sow will be placed in a stall prior to service (mating) and will stay there for at least the start of her pregnancy, where the risk of miscarriage is higher. The length of the sow's gestation is 3 months, 3 weeks, and 3 days. In certain cases, sows may spend this time in the crate. However, a variety of farming systems are used and the time in the crate may vary from 4 weeks to the whole pregnancy.
There is also some criticism of 'farrowing crates'. A farrowing crate houses the sow in one section and her piglets in another. It allows the sow to lie down and turn around to feed her piglets, but keeps her piglets in a separate section. This prevents the large sow from sitting on her piglets and killing them, which is quite common where the sow is not separated from the piglets. Some models of farrowing crates may allow more space than others, and allow greater interaction between sow and young, although these increase the chance that the sow will crush her piglets. Some crates may also be designed with cost-effectiveness or efficiency in mind and therefore be smaller.
Effects on traditional rural communities
Another criticism of intensive piggeries is that they represent a corporatization of the traditional rural lifestyle. The rise of intensive piggeries has largely replaced family farming. For example, between
1982and 1987some 21% of Iowahog farmers went out of business.Fact|date=February 2007 By 1992, another 12% had gone out of business.Fact|date=February 2007 In large part, this is because intensive piggeries are more economical than outdoor systems, pen systems, or the sty. In many pork-producing countries (e.g., US, Canada, Australia, Denmark) the use of intensive piggeries has led to market rationalization and concentration.
* [http://www.cnmpwatch.com/show_story.php?id=35164 Brief History of CAFO Regulations] - from the National Association of State Departments of Agriculture
Proponent, neutral, and industry-related
* [http://www.joe.org/joe/2006february/a4.shtml Journal of Extension] , article on case studies of the impact of large scale agriculture
* [http://www.fb.org/ US Farm Bureau] , Farm and Ranchers association
* [http://www.thepigsite.com The Pig Site] – industry support site with feature articles and news, with an emphasis on intensive farming practices
* [http://www.sowstalls.com.au/background.html Industry-run site on intensive pig farming]
* [http://www.supportiowasfarmers.com/ Coalition to Support Iowa Farmers]
* [http://www.ers.usda.gov/Emphases/SafeFood/ USDA food safety]
* [http://www.foodsci.purdue.edu/outreach/ Purdue University food science extension]
* [http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/library/agec2/MF2757.pdf Swine Wean-to-Finish Cost-Return Budget, Kansas State University]
Criticism of intensive pig farming
* [http://www.SaveBabe.com/ SaveBabe.com] Animals Australia's campaign to end pig factory farming featuring
* [http://www.engormix.com/swine_production_a_global_e_articles_124_POR.htm Swine Production: A Global Perspective]
* [http://www.animalliberation.org.au/pigs.php Anti intensive farming site (Australian)]
* [http://www.animalsuffering.com/resources/facts/factory-farming.php Anti-agricultural FAQs on Factory Farming]
* [http://www.askforchange.org Ask For Change] resources for consumers
* [http://www.shoestringtravels.com/animals/Stats.htm A critique of factory farming]
* [http://www.factoryfarming.com/pork.htm Factory farming pork]
* [http://www.goveg.com/factoryFarming_pigs.asp Factory farming pigs] Article with photos and videos of factory farming
* [http://www.husbandryinstitute.org Husbandry Institute] Promoting sustainable, responsible, and ethical animal husbandry
* [http://www.hsus.org/farm/ Information about factory farming] from The Humane Society of the United States
* [http://www.meetyourmeat.com/wycd.html Meet Your Meat] - a PETA-produced factory farm tour narrated by
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