Suhrawardiyya


Suhrawardiyya

Suhrawardiyya (Arabic: سهروردية ) is the name of a Sufi order founded by Iranian Sufi Diya al-din Abu 'n-Najib as-Suhrawardi (10971168).

He was a murid of Ahmad al-Ghazali, who was a brother of Imam Abu Hamid al-Ghazali. c. 545 A.H. he was teaching Shafi'i fiqh at Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad Academy. His surviving work is called Kitab Adab Al-Muridin.

Many Sufis from all over the Islamic world joined the order under the founder's nephew Abu Hafs Umar al-Suhrawardi (11451234), who was sent as emissary to the court of Khwarezm Shah in Bukhara by the Khalifa in Baghdad. His son is buried in Tashkent. Later the Order spread into India through Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari and Hazrat Baha-ud-din Zakariya.

The principal role in the formation of a conservative ‘new piety’ and in the initiation of urban commercial and vocational groups into mysticism was played by the Suhrawardiyya silsila. Suhrawardiyya originated in Iraq but succeeded only in India to take shape as a fraternity with its infrastructure, internal hierarchy of members and cloisters and a single centre in Multan and Uchch. The Suhrawardiyya is a strictly Sunni order, guided by Shafi`i madhab. The Suhrawardiyya trace their spiritual genealogy to Hazrat Ali ibn Abi Talib (A.S.)through Junayd Baghdadi and al-Ghazali.

Abu Hafs Umar al-Suhrawardi, took recourse to active life, renounced reclusion and excessive fasting, maintained close contacts with the authorities, and undertook diplomatic missions and political settlement of conflicts. His luxurious cloister in Baghdad, with gardens and bath houses, was specially built for him by Caliph an-Nasir, on whose behalf Abu Hafs travelled as an ambassador to the Ayyubid Sultan Malik al-Adil I of Egypt, to Khwarezm-Shah Muhammad of Bukhara and to Kaiqubad I, the Seljuk ruler of Konya.

Shaikh Abu Hafs Umar al-Suhrawardi, the author of “Awarif al-Ma’arif”, directed his disciples Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari Shaikh Baha-ud-din Zakariya of Multan (1182-1262 AD) to make Multan the center of his activity. Iltutmish appointed him as "Shaikhul Islam" after the invasion of Multan and topple its ruler, Qabacha. During the Mongol invasion he became the peace negotiotor between invaders and muslim army.

Another Suharwardi, Fakharuddin Iraqi buried at Konya, Turkey, received formal initiation into the Sufi way under Shaykh Baha'uddin, the head of the Suhrawardiyya Sufi Order. 'Iraqi lived in Multan for 25 years as one of the Suhrawardis, composing poetry. As Shaykh Baha'uddin was dying, he named Fakhruddin 'Iraqi to be his successor.

When it became known that 'Iraqi had been named head of the Suhrawardi Order, some in the order became jealous and denounced him to the Sultan who sought to have 'Iraqi arrested.

'Iraqi fled the area with a few close companions, and they eventually made their way to Makkah and Medina. Later they moved north to Konya in Turkey. This was Konya at the time of Rumi. 'Iraqi often listened to Rumi teach and recite poetry, and later attended Rumi's funeral.

Although 'Iraqi was nominally the head (in exile) of a large and respected Sufi order, he humbly became the disciple of another Sufi master -- Sadruddin Qunawi, who also lived in Konya at the time. Qunawi was the son-in-law of the recently deceased Sufi philosoper Ibn 'Arabi. Although less known in the West today, Qunawi was perhaps the pre-eminent Sufi teacher in Konya at the time, even better known than his neighbor Rumi.

'Iraqi was deeply devoted to Qunawi and to the teachings of Ibn 'Arabi. It was a series of speeches Qunawi delivered on the esoteric meaning of Ibn 'Arabi's great works that inspired 'Iraqi to compose his own masterpiece of commentary and poetry named the Lama'at or Divine Flashes.

When Fakhruddin 'Iraqi died he was buried near Ibn 'Arabi's tomb.

Baha-ud-din Zakariya’s successor then was his son Shaikh Sadruddin ‘Arif. His disciple, Amir Husayn, the author of “Zad- al-Musafirin”, wrote several works on the doctrine Wahdat al-Wujud. Shaikh Arif’s son and caliph, Shaikh Ruknuddin was highly respected by the Delhi Sultans from ‘Alauddin Khilji to Muhammad Ibn Tughlaq.

After the death of Shaikh Ruknuddin the Suhrawardiyya silsila declined in Multan but became popular in other provinces like Uch, Gujarat, Punjab, Kashmir and even Delhi. Suharawardiyya order of Sufism became popular in Bengal (Contemporary Relevance of Sufism, 1993, published by Indian Council for Cultural relations).

It was popularised and revitalized by Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari known as Makhdum Jahaniyan, the world traveler. He was puritan and strongly objected the Hindu influences to Muslim social and religious practices.

Another contemporary mystic who is worthy of mention was Shaikh Sharfuddin Yahya Manairi (d. 1380 AD). He belonged to the Firdausia order, a branch of Suhrawardiyya. He compiled several books, i.e. “Fawaid al-Muridin”, “Irshadat al-Talibin”,”Rahat al-Qulub”, etc.

Another al-Suhrawardi was the well known Shihabuddin Yahya as-Suhrawardi (1153 - 1191) who was a shia and founder of the Illuminationist school.

ReferencesMuslim Saints of South Asia By: Anna Suvorova RoutledgeCurzon, 2004

ee also

*Sohrevardi aka "Suhrewardi"
* Mausoleum of Sheikh Zaynudin
* [http://www.yabahu.com Sarwari Qadri Order]

External links

* [http://www.islam786.org/silsilaesuhrawardiya.htm]


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