Friedhelm Hardy

Friedhelm Hardy

Friedhelm Ernst Hardy also known as Fred Hardy (1943 - 4 August 2004) was one of the first and prominent westerners converted Hindu Professors of Indian Religions, teaching at King's College London. He was a linguist familiar with both classical and modern Indian languages, described in his obituary as "unrivalled in this country and possibly anywhere in the world today". He is the author of two prominent works, "The Religious Culture of India: Power, Love and Wisdom" and "Viraha-Bhakti: The Early History of Kṛṣṇa Devotion in South India".

Early years

Hardy was born in the Rhineland and according to his obituary "showed an early interest in languages and scripts." He began studying Sanskrit in Cologne before moving on to his doctoral work at Oxford University in 1967. While at Oxford, he met Arunka Gokhale, a mathematician, whom he later married.

Notable work

Hardy went to Tamilnadu to conduct research for his doctoral thesis, spending over a year examining the history of Krishnaism, specifically all pre-11 century sources starting with the stories of Krishna and the gopis, of Northern Literature, and including Mayon mysticism of the Vaishnava Tamil saints, Sangam Tamil literature and Alvars' Krishna-centered devotion in the rasa of the emotional union and the dating and history of the Bhagavata Purana.cite book |author=Hardy, Friedhelm |title=Viraha-Bhakti: The Early History of Krsna Devotion in South India (Oxford University South Asian Studies Series) |publisher=Oxford University Press, USA |location= |year=2001 |pages= |isbn=0-19-564916-8] [cite web
url=http://ier.sagepub.com/cgi/pdf_extract/23/4/443?ck=nck
title=Book review - FRIEDHELM HARDY, Viraha Bhakti: The Early History of Krishna Devotion in South India. Oxford University Press, Nagaswamy 23 (4): 443 -- Indian Economic & Social History Review
publisher=ier.sagepub.com
accessdate=2008-07-29
] The resultant thesis was detailed to the point that it had to be abbreviated for its 1983 publication. His book "Viraha-bhakti" was considered to have contained some major discoveries. His first discovery concerned the emotion displayed towards Krishna as "bhakti", or object of devotion, in the "Bhagavad Gita". Hardy demonstrated that this was more of an intellectual type, whereas emotional bhakti is different and expressed in the various connections between records and traditions there is evidence of early "southern Krishnaism", even there was a tendency to allocate this tradition to the Northern traditions. There is a narrative context in which the early writings in Dravidian culture such as "Manimekalai" and the "Cilappatikaram" present Krishna, his brother, and favorite female companions in the similar terms. He argued that the Sanskrit Bhagavata Purana is essentially a Sanskrit "translation" of the bhakti of the Tamil alvars. [Norman Cutler (1987) "Songs of Experience: The Poetics of Tamil Devotion", [http://books.google.com/books?id=veSItWingx8C&pg=PA13&dq=Friedhelm+Hardy+Viraha+Bhakti&ei=aYCPSL2TJ4uUiAGg_rjPDA&client=firefox-a&sig=ACfU3U2vlStPA_NURdx8gHxhv-nq2FSRaQ p. 13] ] Accordingly South Indian texts illustrate close parallels to the Sanskrit traditions of Krishna and his gopi companions, so ubiquitous in later North Indian text and imagery.MONIUS, Anne E.: "Dance Before Doom. Krishna In The Non-Hindu Literature of Early Medieval South India." In: Beck, Guy L., ed. "Alternative Krishnas. Regional and Vernacular Variations on a Hindu Deity". Albany: State University of New York Press 2005; Ch. 8. pp. 139-149.] Some consider his work fundamental to the study of how Hinduism developed. He had also theorized in his subsequent publications how Tamil bhakti gradually spread to the North India and laid the ground for the later bhakti of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and Vallabhacharya.

Notable theories and statements

;*;Erotic images on Hindu Temples After long studies in India, Fred Hardy came up with a theory as to the meaning of erotic sculptures, such as for example visible on the temples of Khajuraho. The erotic sculptures are visible on may temple of the South India, the main area of expertise of Hardy. This theory was first expressed to him by people in a temple's environs. Fred Hardy theorized that the erotic sculptures on the outer walls of Hindu temples are intended to keep away demons from the pure sanctuary of the shrines. [cite book
author = Flood, G.D.
authorlink = Gavin Flood
year = 2006
title = The Tantric Body: The Secret Tradition of Hindu Religion
publisher = IB Tauris
isbn = 1845110129
pages = p. 85
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=GKBV7QZ7BBQC&pg=PA85&ei=dbqRSMS9AY_-jgHx05iwAg&client=firefox-a&sig=ACfU3U0VkqZ3L9-rurOOx9ZSDmjmXv9dQQ
] ;*;Modern Myth of HinduismHe has suggested: "That the global title of "Hinduism" has been given to [such a variety of religions] must be regarded as an act of pure despair". [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=5NGnJgVH8sQC&pg=PA232&lpg=PA232&dq=Friedhelm+Hardy+-+King's&source=web&ots=B68gpTl5xs&sig=qyJSBZNbC9xuA4PfrlSyH3hluIw&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result Richard King] "Orientalism and Religion" (1999) ISBN 0-415-20257-4] ;*;Pluralism in religionHe had concluded: "religious pluralism is demonstrable nonsense". [ [http://www.google.ie/url?sa=t&ct=res&cd=12&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.layman.org%2Flayman%2FResources%2Fcan-two-faiths.pdf&ei=9YuPSO7_CIPU0gWb4Jm_Cw&usg=AFQjCNEidDQxajPBPhO92QuCJ4FGSiBsig&sig2=pavTRaeCEzOhsvPSvozIgQ TWO FAITHS ONE FUTURE TWO FAITHS ONE FUTURE] ]

Other works and projects

His also was an editor of a general companion to Indic religions, "The World's Religions: the Religions of Asia" published in 1990. He was also notably invited to give the Wilde Lectures on Comparative Religion at Oxford University were later published in 1994 as "The Religious Culture of India: Power, Love and Wisdom".cite web
url=http://www.ochs.org.uk/news/in_memorandum.html
title=The Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies
publisher=www.ochs.org.uk
accessdate=2008-07-29
last=Gombrich
first=Richard
]

See also "Seven Hundred Elegant Verses": c. 360 pp, Friedhelm Hardy, 2008, ISBN 0-8147-3687-4 published earlier this year.

External links

*cite web
url=http://www.jstor.org/pss/1062650
title= Review: Play and Separation: Two Studies of Kṛṣṇa - History of Religions, Vol. 23, No. 4 (May, 1984 ), pp. 389-391
publisher=www.jstor.org
accessdate=2008-07-29
last=L
first=Segel

*cite web
url=http://www.claysanskritlibrary.org/people.php
title=Clay Sanskrit Library: CSL People
publisher=www.claysanskritlibrary.org
accessdate=2008-07-29
last=
first=

*cite web
url=http://www.claysanskritlibrary.org/Seven-Hundred-Elegant-Verses-v-32.html
title=Clay Sanskrit Library : Volumes : Seven Hundred Elegant Verses
publisher=www.claysanskritlibrary.org
accessdate=2008-07-29
last=
ISBN=0814736874

References and notes

ee also

* Svayam Bhagavan
* Krishna
* Clay Sanskrit Library
* Bhagavata Purana
* Puranas
* Hardy (surname)


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