- Anthony of Kiev
Eastern Orthodox Church
caption=St. Anthony of Kiev, co-founder of the
Kiev Pechersk Lavra.
Lyubech, Chernigov Principality
titles=Venerable Father, Anthony of the Caves
Russian Orthodox Church
attributes=Clothed as a
monkin monastic habit, sometimes with an abbot's paterissa(crozier)
St. Anthony of Kiev (c. 983-1073) was a
monkand the founder of the monastic tradition in the Kievan Rus'. Also called Anthony of the Caves ( _ru. Антоний Печерский, _uk. Антоній Печерський) he, together with Theodosius of Kiev, co-founded Kiev Pechersk Lavra(Kiev Monasteryof the Caves).
St. Anthony is venerated as a
saint, and the founder of monasticismin Russia. His feast dayfalls on July 10. Since the Russian Orthodox Churchfollows the Julian Calendar, the day on which his feast is celebrated is currently July 23on the modern Gregorian Calendar. His relics have never been found.
He was born in
Lyubechin Chernigov Principalityand was baptized with the name "Antipas". He was drawn to the spiritual life from an early age, and, when he was of age, left for the Greek Orthodox Esphigmenou Monasteryon Mount Athosto live as a hermit. He lived in a secluded cave there overlooking the sea, which is still shown to visitors. In 1051, the abbotgave Anthony the job of expanding monasticism in his native Kiev, which had only recently begun its conversion to Christianity.
Return to Kiev
Anthony returned to Kiev, and found several monasteries founded on the Greek model on order of local princes. These monasteries were not as austere as Anthony was used to from his time on Mount Athos. He instead chose to live in a small four-yard cave which had been dug by the
In 1015 his peaceful austerity was interrupted by the death of
Vladimir I of Kiev, and the subsequent fratricidal war for the throne between Vladimir's sons Yaroslav and Sviatopolk, and Anthony returned to Mount Athos. When the conflict ended, the abbot sent Anthony back to Kiev, prophesying that many monks would join him on his return.
Establishment of Kiev Pechersk Lavra
On his return, Anthony found a small 4-yard cave which Hilarion had dug before his elevation as the first native
Metropolitan of Kiev. Anthony became well known in the area for his strict asceticism. He ate rye bread every other day and drank only a little water. His fame soon spread beyond Kiev, and several people began to ask for his spiritual guidance or blessing. Soon, some people even offered to join him. Eventually, Anthony accepted the company of a few of them. The first was a priest named Nikon. The second was Theodosius of Kiev.
The new monastery enjoyed royal favor almost from the beginning, although there were occasional problems. When
Iziaslav I of Kievdemanded that the son of a wealthy boyarand one of his own retainers be told to leave the monastery, Nikon said he could not take soldiers away from the King of Heaven. This did nothing to placate Iziaslav's anger, and Anthony decided that it might be expedient for him to leave. Anthony returned after Iziaslav's wife requested his return.
Shortly thereafter Anthony had gained 12 disciples. Anthony, devoted to the model of the solitary hermit set by his namesake
Anthony the Great, left his cave for a nearby mountain so he could continue to live the solitary life. There, he dug another cave for himself and lived in seclusion there. This cave became the first of what would later be known as the Far Caves.
In time, the first official abbot of the monastery,
Barlaam of Kiev, was called by Iziaslav to head a new monastery, St. Demetrios, which had been built at the gates of the city. The monks requested Anthony to name the replacement, and he named Theodosius.
As the number of monks grew and crowding became a problem, Anthony requested that Iziaslav give them the hill in which the caves were located. He did so, and the monks built a wooden church and some cells there, encircling the area with a wooden fence. Theodosius continued to consult Anthony in the guidance of the community, and, as the monastery grew, so did Anthony's reputation.
Exile and return
When Iziaslav and his brothers were facing a popular uprising involving the
Cumans, they came to Anthony for his blessing. They did not get it. Anthony foretold that because of their sins they would be defeated, and that the brothers would be buried in a church they would build. Shortly thereafter Iziaslav left because of the rebellion. He suspected Anthony of sympathizing with the opposition, and arranged to banish Anthony upon his return. Before he could do so, Iziaslav's brother, Sviatoslav, arranged for Anthony to be secretly taken to Chernigov. Anthony dug himself a cave there. The Eletsky Monastery there is said by some to be built on the site of Anthony's cave. Eventually Iziaslav was again reconciled to Anthony, and asked that he return to Kiev.
On his return, Anthony and Theodosius decided to build a larger stone church, to accommodate the ever increasing number of monks. Anthony himself did not live to see the church complete. He died in 1073, shortly after blessing the foundation of the new church, at 90 years old. Shortly before his death, he called the monks together and consoled them about his coming death. He also asked them that his remains be hidden away forever. The monks carried out his request. He was reportedly buried in his cave, but no relics have ever been found. Many however have subsequently come to the cave to pray, and many of them have reported being healed there.
Near Caves (Pechersk Lavra)
*Attwater, Donald and Catherine Rachel John. "The Penguin Dictionary of Saints". 3rd edition. New York: Penguin Books, 1993. ISBN 0-140-51312-4.
* [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9007777&query=anthony%20of%20Kiev&ct= Anthony of Kiev] article in
* [http://www.roca.org/OA/78/78g.htm The Fathers of Russian Monasticism] at roca.com
* [http://www.lavra.kiev.ua/en/main.php?t=nearcaves Saint Anthony of Pechersk] on the official Kiev Caves Lavra Website en icon
* [http://ocafs.oca.org/FeastSaintsViewer.asp?SID=4&ID=1&FSID=101994 Venerable Anthony of the Kiev Far Caves, Founder of Monasticism in Russia] Orthodox
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