- Korean wave
Infobox East Asian
pinyin=HánliúThe Korean wave refers to the recent surge of popularity of South Korean popular culture in other countries, especially in Asian countries.
It is also referred to as "Hallyu", from the Korean pronunciation of the term. The term was coined in China in mid 1999 by
Beijingjournalists startled by the growing popularity of South Koreans and South Korean goods in China. [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/30/AR2006083002985.html Japanese Women Catch the 'Korean Wave' ] ] 한류/韓流/韩流 (Korean Wave) is homophoneto an existing compound word, 한류/寒流 ("cold current") in Mandarin Chineseand Korean.
The Korean wave began with the export of Korean TV dramas such as "
Autumn Fairy Tale", " Winter Sonata" and " Jewel in the Palace" across East and Southeast Asia; the growing success of Korean drama was shortly matched in the fields of movies and popular music.
Explaining the phenomenon
The Korean Wave first began in the early 1990’s with the film industry under the surveillance of the Korean Government. Producers were only allowed to screen films approved by certain regulations. Due to censorship and restrictions, producers were limited as to what they were able to produce. Therefore, this initiated the birth of melodramas. Since then, melodramas have been plentiful, and are commonly viewed not only in South Korea, but many surrounding Asian countries as well.
The popularity of South Korean shows, singers, and movies throughout Asia is due both to South Korea's readily evident affluence and to its relatively close cultural affinity with other Asian countries. [ [http://english.chosun.com/w21data/html/news/200601/200601070003.html Digital Chosunilbo (English Edition) : Daily News in English About Korea ] ]
Directorate of Intelligence|date=2008-09-10|accessdate=2008-10-03|] [cite web|url=http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/Resources/GDP.pdf|title=Gross domestic product 2007|publisher= World Bank|date=2008-09-10|accessdate=2008-10-03|] , and 9th largest film marketFact|date=October 2008, and its entertainment companies are able to finance shows and movies with production values higher than in much of Asia. Korean pop singers' performances are slickly produced and often feature spectacular laser and fireworks shows.
Success of Korean dramas, a market dominated by the youth, can be attributed to good looking actors and actresses who embody a number of traits that are very familiar to regular drama viewers and popular fantasies among women. Portrayed sensitivity and depth among male characters in Korean dramas attracts much of the female drama viewers. [ [http://www.audreymagazine.com/oct2005/Features01.asp Audrey / Asian Women's Magazine - Features ] ]
More importantly, though, the shows and movies have themes that all audiences can socially relate to regardless of culture or geographical location. Korean dramas typically deal with family issues, love, and filial piety in an age of changing technology and values.
Recent years have seen an increase in interest in the
Korean language, Korean cuisineand Hanbok, the traditional Korean dressFact|date=October 2008.
The overwhelming success of South Korean dramas, movies, and music served as a major tourist magnet in 2005, mainly from
Japan, China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, the Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesiaand Vietnam. [ [http://www.the-infoshop.com/study/eo45894-travel-tourism.html [Report South Korea Travel & Tourism Market Research, Trends, Analysis ] ]
After the success of the drama
Dae Jang Geumin Iran, [ [http://www.aftab.ir/news/2007/jul/13/c5c1184327530_art_culture_media_television.php Set Cookies ] ] , Iranian national TV's Channel 2 showed a series of programs called Korean Wave introducing Korean culture, and even interviewed Korean star Lee Young Ae[ [http://www.aftab.ir/articles/art_culture/TV/c5c1197222916_yangom_p1.php Set Cookies ] ] . Soon after that, national TV's Channel 3 started showing another Korean drama, Emperor of the Seadenoting the popularity of Korean dramas in Iran. Avid Iranians have also created fansites for both dramas. [ [http://www.emperor-sea.ir/ سريال امپراطور دريا ] ]
Korean male celebrities are now among the highest-paid actors outside
Hollywood. According to the South Korean media, " Winter Sonata" star Bae Yong Joonis now charging $5 million a film, the highest in Asia, not counting Jacky Chan and Jet Li, who received US$14 million for the Chinese film 'Warlords' and more for Hollywood films. [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/30/AR2006083002985.html Japanese Women Catch the 'Korean Wave' ] ] At least nine other Korean male stars earn more than $10 million a year. [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/30/AR2006083002985.html Japanese Women Catch the 'Korean Wave' ] ]
The best-selling international artist from Korea is
BoAdue to her popularity in the J-popmarket. Other international stars also includes Shinhwaand TVXQalong with Super Junior.
In 2006, South Korean programs on Chinese government TV networks accounted for more than all other foreign programs combined. [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/30/AR2006083002985_2.html Japanese Women Catch the 'Korean Wave' ] ]
May 5 2007, a K-pop concert was held at the Hollywood Bowlin Los Angeles. The theme for the night was "We Are One" and several big names performed, including Ivy, Fly to the Sky, Big Bang, Super Junior, Epik Highand BoA.Fact|date=August 2007
In 2001, many critics predicted the Korean wave would soon cool down. However contrary to most expectations, the Korean wave has grown stronger since 2003. [Cho Hae-Joang, Reading the “Korean Wave as a Sign of Global Shift", pg 167, Korea Journal, 2005]
Discussion contained in Munhwa siseon, a semi-academic journal published by the Korea Culture & Tourism Policy Institute took place in March 2005 with the postcolonialist Won Yong-jin as the chair, and six academics including Kim Hyun Mee. At the forum, Bak Jae-bok and other participants predicted that the Korean Wave would continue to surge for some time. They agreed that the traffic in Asian drama began with the liberalization of Taiwan’s drama market in the early 1990s, Japan being the main exporter at the time. Korean drama, then, entered the niche market in the late 1990s when consumption of Hong Kong and Japanese popular culture was declining. [Cho Hae-Joang, Reading the “Korean Wave as a Sign of Global Shift", pg 171, Korea Journal, 2005]
In the paper “Korean cultural capital’s phenomenon and cultural nationalism”, Lee Dong Yeun, identifies many ominous traces of cultural nationalism within the phenomenon of the KoreanWave. He concludes his article by warning, “If the Korean Wave continues to surge, reflecting the diplomatic relations that supports a capitalist logic rather than a strengthening of the communicativepower of civil society to provide the possibility of diversifying the cultural tastes of the masses, then it will have to put up a hard fight against China’s ethnocentrism and Japan’s malleable nationalism.” [Cho Hae-Joang, Reading the “Korean Wave as a Sign of Global Shift", pg 172, Korea Journal, 2005]
Currently, the film
D-Warmade by comedian-turned-director Hyung Rae Shim has taken up fans in Korea and America. It's success was enough to warrant a sequel. The film, to the Korean public, was reported to be a national symbol of nationalism mostly because the film is the first to depict not only oriental dragons but accurate mythological creatures exclusive from Korean lore, the Imoogi.
In 2005, there were signs of a nascent backlash against the "Korean wave", initiated by Asian men who resented the "beautifying" of Korea by the media. The growing "Hallyu" wave mainly attracted female viewers who became increasingly attracted to Korean male actors.
Vietnam's government threatened to ban the broadcast of Korean shows if Vietnamese shows were not broadcast more on Vietnamese television stations. [ [http://atimes.com/atimes/Korea/GK12Dg02.html Asia Times Online :: Korea News and Korean Business and Economy, Pyongyang News ] ] Taiwanconsidered limits on the broadcast of foreign shows. China also considered boycotting or limiting the amount of Korean imports in the entertainment sector. [ [http://english.chosun.com/w21data/html/news/200601/200601110009.html Digital Chosunilbo (English Edition) : Daily News in English About Korea ] ]
Vietnam and China are markets where the "Korean wave" has penetrated into the consumer choice and behavior of its respective citizens. The Samsung Economic Research Institute in its special report labeled progress of the "Korean wave" in Vietnam & China as in the 3rd stage, out of a potential four stages. In this stage "Made in Korea" products become increasingly popular. [Cho Hae-Joang, Reading the “Korean Wave as a Sign of Global Shift", pg 169, Korea Journal, 2005]
Japan, a comic book with a title usually translated as "Hating the Korean Wave" sold enough copies that a sequel was released. The book has been accused of promoting hatred and containing historical inaccuracies. [ [http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FA0611F8355A0C7A8DDDA80994DD404482 Ugly Images of Asian Rivals Become Best Sellers in Japan - New York Times ] ] [ [http://mdn.mainichi-msn.co.jp/waiwai/archive/news/2005/08/20050810p2g00m0dm014000c.html Mainichi Daily News ends its partnership with MSN, takes on new Web address ] ] [ [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-1851673,00.html Neighbour fails to see funny side of comic - World - Times Online ] ]
Contemporary culture of South Korea
Cinema of Korea
* KTO (Korea Tourism Organization, formerly, KNTO)
List of Korea-related topics
* [http://www.iias.nl/nl/42/IIAS_NL42_15.pdf Critical article by Roald Maliangkay on the recent development of the Wave]
* [http://www.ikoface.com The Korea Foundation for Asian Culture Exchange]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/1646903.stm "'Korean Wave' Piracy Hits Music Industry"] , BBC,
November 9, 2001.
* [http://asia.news.yahoo.com/041215/4/1t684.html "'Korean Wave' Hits Asia Lifting S. Korean Tourism"] , Yonhap News,
December 15, 2005.
* [http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/01/02/news/korea.php "A rising Korean wave: If Seoul sells it, China craves it"] , The International Herald Tribune,
January 10, 2006.
* [http://times.hankooki.com/lpage/culture/200601/kt2006011616582311690.htm "Hallyu Phenomenon Faces Backlash in East Asia"] , The Korea Times,
January 16, 2006.
* [http://times.hankooki.com/lpage/opinion/200601/kt2006011816092754090.htm "Hallyu and Screen Quota"] , The Korea Times,
January 18, 2006.
* [http://www.allkpop.com/index.php/articles_full/korea_asias_new_entertainment_source/ "Korea, Asia's New Entertainment Source?"] , AllKPop
October 28, 2007.
* [http://www.ourorient.com/articles/relations/koreanwave.htm Why Is Korean Wave Popular In China?]
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