Ligament


Ligament
Ligament
Knee diagram.svg
Diagram of the right knee.
Joint.png
Typical joint

In anatomy, the term ligament is used to denote any of three types of structures.[1] Most commonly, it refers to fibrous tissue that connects bones to other bones and is also known as articular ligament, articular larua,[2] fibrous ligament, or true ligament.

Ligament can also refer to:

  • Peritoneal ligament: a fold of peritoneum or other membranes.
  • Fetal remnant ligament: the remnants of a tubular structure from the fetal period of life.

The study of ligaments is known as desmology (from Greek δεσμός, desmos, "string"; and -λογία, -logia).

Contents

Articular ligaments

"Ligament" most commonly refers to a band of tough, fibrous dense regular connective tissue comprising attenuated collagenous fibers. Ligaments connect bones to other bones to form a joint. They do not connect muscles to bones; that is the job of tendons. Some ligaments limit the mobility of articulations, or prevent certain movements altogether.

Capsular ligaments are part of the articular capsule that surrounds synovial joints. They act as mechanical reinforcements. Extra-capsular ligaments join together and provide joint stability. Intra-capsular ligaments, which are much less common,[citation needed] also provide stability but permit a far larger range of motion. Cruciate ligaments occur in pairs.

Ligaments are viscoelastic. They gradually lengthen when under tension, and return to their original shape when the tension is removed. However, they cannot retain their original shape when stretched past a certain point or for a prolonged period of time. This is one reason why dislocated joints must be set as quickly as possible: if the ligaments lengthen too much, then the joint will be weakened, becoming prone to future dislocations.[citation needed] Athletes, gymnasts, dancers, and martial artists perform stretching exercises to lengthen their ligaments, making their joints more supple.

The term "double-jointed" refers to people with more-elastic ligaments, allowing their joints to stretch and contort further. The medical term for describing such double-jointed persons is hyperlaxity.

The consequence of a broken ligament can be instability of the joint. Not all broken ligaments need surgery, but, if surgery is needed to stabilise the joint, the broken ligament can be repaired. Scar tissue may prevent this. If it is not possible to fix the broken ligament, other procedures such as the Brunelli procedure can correct the instability. Instability of a joint can over time lead to wear of the cartilage and eventually to osteoarthritis.

Examples

Head and neck
Thorax
  • Suspensory ligament of the breast
Pelvis
Wrist
Knee

Peritoneal ligaments

Certain folds of peritoneum are referred to as ligaments. Examples include:

Fetal remnant ligaments

Certain tubular structures from the fetal period are referred to as ligaments after they close up and turn into cord-like structures:[citation needed]

Fetal Adult
ductus arteriosus ligamentum arteriosum
extra-hepatic portion of the fetal left umbilical vein ligamentum teres hepatis (the "round ligament of the liver").
intra-hepatic portion of the fetal left umbilical vein (the ductus venosus) ligamentum venosum
distal portions of the fetal left and right umbilical arteries medial umbilical ligaments

See also

References

  1. ^ ligament at eMedicine Dictionary
  2. ^ "ligament" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • ligament — [ ligamɑ̃ ] n. m. • 1363; lat. ligamentum, de ligare « lier » 1 ♦ Faisceau de tissu fibreux blanchâtre, très résistant et peu extensible, unissant les éléments d une articulation. Ligaments articulaires, interosseux. Ligaments distendus, arrachés …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • ligament — LIGAMÉNT, ligamente, s.n. Fascicul de fibre conjunctive, tare şi puţin elastic, care leagă între ele, în articulaţii diferite, părţi ale scheletului sau ajută la fixarea viscerelor. – Din fr. ligament, lat. ligamentum. Trimis de LauraGellner,… …   Dicționar Român

  • Ligament — Lig a*ment (l[i^]g [.a]*ment), n. [L. ligamentum, fr. ligare to bind; cf. f. ligament. Cf. {Lien}, n., {Ligature}.] 1. Anything that ties or unites one thing or part to another; a bandage; a bond. Hawthorne. [1913 Webster] Interwoven is the love… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • ligament — ligàment (ligamȅnt) m <G mn nātā> DEFINICIJA anat. vezivno tkivo, povezuje kosti i osigurava čvrstoću zglobova; sveza ETIMOLOGIJA srlat. ligamentum: vez, zavoj …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • ligament — Ligament. s. m. Terme d anatomie. Certains tendons qui suspendent quelque partie du corps. Un ligament large. les ligaments du foye. les ligaments de la matrice. les ligaments des os de la cuisse &c …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • Ligamént — (lat.), Band, Binde …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Ligament — Ligament, lat. dtsch., Band, Binde; L. e. die Bänder und Flechsen des animalischen Organismus …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • ligament — index chain (nexus) Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 …   Law dictionary

  • ligàment — (ligamȅnt) m 〈G mn nātā〉 anat. vezivno tkivo, povezuje kosti i osigurava čvrstoću zglobova; sveza ✧ {{001f}}lat …   Veliki rječnik hrvatskoga jezika

  • ligament — late 14c., from L. ligamentum band, tie, ligature, from ligare to bind, tie, from PIE *leig to bind (Cf. Alb. lith I bind, M.L.G. lik band, M.H.G. geleich joint, limb ). Related: Ligamental; ligamentary …   Etymology dictionary