- Fake 4-ball
mathematics, a fake 4-ball is a compact contractibletopological 4-manifold. Michael Freedmanproved that every three-dimensional homology spherebounds a fake 4-ball. His construction involves the use of Casson handles and so does not work in the smooth category.
*Alexandru Scorpan, "The Wild World of 4-Manifolds", American Mathematical Society, ISBN 0-8218-3749-4
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