Jugurtha (ca. 160 – 104 BC) was a Libyan King of
Numidia, born in Cirta.
Until the reign of Jugurtha's grandfather
Masinissa, the people of Numidia were semi-nomadic and indistinguishable from the other Libyans in North Africa. Masinissa established a kingdom (roughly equivalent to modern northern Algeria) and became a Roman ally in 206 BC. After a long reign he was succeeded in 148 BC by his son Micipsa. Jugurtha, Micipsa's adopted son (and Masinissa's illegitimate grandson), was so popular among the Numidians that Micipsa was obliged to send him away to Spain.cite web | last = Sallust | title = The Jugurthine War | work =p.6 | publisher = (ed. John Selby Watson), Tufts Perseus Digital Library | url = http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Sal.+Jug.+6] Unfortunately for Micipsa, instead of quietly keeping out of the way, Jugurtha used his time in Spain to make several influential Roman contacts. He served at the siege of Numantiaalongside Gaius Mariusand learned of Rome's weakness for bribes. He famously described Romeas "urbem venalem et mature perituram, si emptorem invenerit" ("a city for sale and doomed to quick destruction, if it should ever find a buyer").
Rise to power
When Micipsa died in 118, he was succeeded jointly by Jugurtha and his two sons (Jugurtha's half-brothers)
Hiempsaland Adherbal. Hiempsal and Jugurtha quarrelled immediately after the death of Micipsa. Jugurtha had Hiempsal killed, which led to open war with Adherbal. After Jugurtha defeated him in open battle, Adherbal fled to Rome for help. The Roman officials, allegedly due to bribes but perhaps more likely because of a desire to quickly end conflict in a profitable client kingdom, settled the fight by dividing Numidia into two parts. Jugurtha was assigned the western half. (Later Roman propaganda claimed that this half was also richer, but in truth it was both less populated and developed.)
War with Rome
By 112 Jugurtha resumed his war with Adherbal, penning the latter up in his capital of Cirta. Adherbal was encouraged to hold out by a corps of Italian residents, in expectation of military aid arriving from Rome. However, Roman troops were engaged in the
Cimbrian Warand the Senate merely sent two successive embassies to remonstrate with Jugurtha who delayed until he had captured Cirta. His troops then massacred many residents including the Italians.M. Cary & H.H. Scullard, "A History of Rome, 3rd ed (1975), p214-6, ISBN 0-333-27830-5] This brought Jugurtha into direct conflict with Rome, who sent troops under the Consul Lucius Calpurnius Bestia. Although the Romans made significant inroads into Numidia, their heavy infantry was unable to inflict any significant casualties on Jugurtha's army which included large numbers of light cavalry.
Bestia then accepted an offer of negotiations from Jugurtha, who surrendered and received a highly favourable peace treaty, which raised suspicions of bribery once more. The local Roman commander was summoned to Rome to face corruption charges brought by his political rival Gaius Memmius, who also induced the tribal assembly to vote safe conduct to Jugurtha to come to Rome to give evidence against the officials suspected of succumbing to bribery. However once Jugurtha had reached Rome another tribune used his veto to prevent evidence being given. Jugurtha also severely damaged his reputation and weakened his position by using his time in Rome to set gangs onto a cousin named Massiva who was a potential rival for the Numidian throne.
War again broke out between Numidia and the
Roman Republicand several legions were dispatched to North Africa under the command of the ConsulQuintus Caecilius Metellus. The war dragged out into a long and seemingly endless campaign as the Romans tried to inflict a decisive defeat on Jugurtha. Frustrated at the apparent lack of action, Metellus' lieutenant Marius returned to Rome to seek election as Consul. Successfully elected, Marius returned to Numidia and to take control of the war. He sent his Quaestor Lucius Cornelius Sullato neighbouring Mauretaniain order to eliminate their support for Jugurtha. With the help of Bocchus I of Mauretania, Sulla was able to capture Jugurtha and bring the war to a conclusive end. Jugurtha was brought to Rome in chains and placed in the Tullianum.
Jugurtha was executed by the Romans in 104 BC, after being paraded through the streets in Gaius Marius' Triumph.
Battle of the Muthul
Sallust, "De Bello Iugurthino"
* [http://www.livius.org/jo-jz/jugurtha/jugurtha.html Livius.org: Jugurtha]
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Jugurtha — (* etwa 160 v. Chr.; † 104 v. Chr.) war König der numidischen Massylier. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Frühe Jahre 2 Machtübernahme 3 Krieg mit Rom 4 Niederla … Deutsch Wikipedia
Jugurtha — Jugurtha, Sohn Manastabals u. Enkel des Massinissa, wurde bei seinem Oheim Micipsa mit dessen Söhnen Adherbal u. Hiempsal erzogen u. mit denselben von Micipsa zu Erben seines Reiches Numidien eingesetzt Nach Micipsas Tode ließ J. den Hiempsal… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Jugurtha — Jugurtha, König von Numidien, natürlicher Sohn des Mastanabal, eines Sohnes des Königs Masinissa, erhielt durch die Gunst seines Oheims Micipsa dieselbe fürstliche Erziehung wie dessen eigne Kinder und wurde von ihm förmlich adoptiert und zum… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Jugurtha — Jugurtha, König von Numidien, Sohn des Mastanabal, wurde 118 v. Chr. von seinem Oheim Micipsa nebst dessen Söhnen, Adherbal und Hiempsal, zum Erben eingesetzt, ließ diese ermorden, ward als Römerfeind 109 von Metellus beim Fluß Muthul, später von … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
Jugurtha — Jugurtha, Enkel des Massinissa, ward von seinem Oheim Micipsa neben dessen zwei Söhnen Hiempsal und Adherbal zum 3. Könige Numidiens eingesetzt; er ermordete den einen, vertrieb den andern und wußte es durch sein Gold bei dem röm. Senate, der… … Herders Conversations-Lexikon
Jugurtha — (v. 160 v. 104 av. J. C.), roi de Numidie. Adversaire des Romains, il fut livré à Sylla, questeur de Marius (105 av. J. C.), et mourut de faim dans un cachot de Rome … Encyclopédie Universelle
JUGURTHA — fil. Mastanabalis, fratris Micipsae, ex pellice, nepos Masinislae, Regis Numidarum, quem patruus Moriens heredem regni sui constituit, una cum 2. filiis suis adhuc impuberibus, Adherbale, et Hiemsale: quos ille postea beneficiorum immemor,… … Hofmann J. Lexicon universale
Jugurtha — [jo͞o gʉr′thə] died 104 B.C.; king of Numidia (112? 104 B.C. ) … English World dictionary
Jugurtha — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Jugurtha (homonymie). Jugurtha Jugurtha emprisonné par les Romains … Wikipédia en Français
Jugurtha — Jugurthine /jooh gerr thin, thuyn/, adj. /jooh gerr theuh/, n. died 104 B.C., king of Numidia 113 104. * * * born с 160 BC died 104, Rome Ruler of the North African kingdom of Numidia under the Romans (118–105 BC). After the death of his uncle… … Universalium