- Megleno-Romanian language
Megleno-Romanian Vlăheşte Spoken in Greece, Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Turkey Region Balkans Native speakers 5,000 (date missing) Language family Language codes ISO 639-3 ruq Linguasphere 51-AAD-bb
Megleno-Romanian (known as Vlăheşte by speakers and Megleno-Romanian, Moglenitic or Meglenitic by linguists) is a Romance language, similar to Aromanian and Romanian, or a dialect of the Romanian language. It is spoken by the Megleno-Romanians in a few villages in the Moglena (Μογλενά) region of Macedonia (Greece and the Republic of Macedonia), in Romania and by a very small Muslim group in Turkey (Karadjaovalides). It is considered an endangered language.
Megleno-Romanian is a member of the Italic branch of the Indo-European language family. More specifically, it is an Eastern Romance language, a language formed after the retreat of the Roman Empire from South-Eastern Europe. Some linguists consider it to be an intermediary between Romanian and Aromanian, often being considered either a dialect of Romanian, a dialect of Aromanian, or an independent language. It is much closer to standard Romanian than the Aromanian language, suggesting that it split from Proto-Romanian later than Aromanian. Megleno-Romanian is influenced a lot by South Slavic.
The term "Megleno-Romanian" has been used by linguists who noticed the similarity to the Romanian language. The Megleno-Romanians identify themselves as Vlahi (see Etymology of Vlach for more on this term).
The origins of Megleno-Romanian could possibly be somewhere along the Axios valley in Republic of Macedonia and the north side of Paiko mountain (Macedonian: Пајак планина), northern Greece, close to the border with Republic of Macedonia, maybe latinized ancient Paeonians or even latinized ancient Macedonians. The Meglen Vlach language may have separated from the form of Latin spoken in the Eastern part of the Roman Empire at a different time in history than the other Vlach groups. Megleno-Romanian is most influenced by the south Slavic languages of the region. According to researcher Maria Papageorgiou from Skra (Municipality of Axioupolis, Kilkis prefecture, Macedonia region, Greece), in the Meglenitic dialect several ancient Greek plays of tragic poets that are lost nowadays have been saved as oral tales/sagas.
Eastern Romance languages Vulgar Latin language
Megleno-Romanian is spoken in the Kilkis and Serres prefectures of Macedonia (Greece), as well as in several villages close to the Greek border in the Republic of Macedonia. In one village, Huma, the language was spoken by most inhabitants. Some of people with Meglono-Romanian origin, knowing the Megleno-Romanian language are living in city of Gevgelija and in Skopje the capital of Republic of Macedonia. After World War I, some Megleno-Romanians moved to Romania, many of them settling in the Cerna village in the Tulcea County, in which about 1,200 continue to speak Megleno-Romanian. In 1940, about 30 families moved from Cerna to the Banat region of Romania in the villages of Variaş, Biled and Jimbolia. Some speakers who identified as Muslims were moved to Turkey from Greece as part of religious-based population exchanges.
Megleno-Romanian has some unique phonetic characteristics, not found in the other Eastern Romance languages:
- long vowels: ā, ē, ī, ō, ū
- ă, â → o, a: câmp → comp (field), mânc → mānc (I eat)
- unaccentuated initial a disappears: adaug → daug (I add), afară → fară (outside), aduc → duc (I bring)
Much of the vocabulary is of Latin origin and much of its phonetics and semantics is shared with Aromanian and Romanian: (n.b.: MR=Megleno-Romanian, DR=Daco-Romanian, i.e. Romanian)
- basilica > MR bisearică, DR biserică (church, originally "basilica")
- lumen > MR lumi, DR lume (world, originally "light")
- monumentum > MR murmint, DR mormânt (grave, originally "monument")
- strigis > MR strig, DR strig (I yell, originally "owl")
- draco > MR drac, DR drac (devil, originally "dragon")
- MR brad; DR brad; cf. Alb. bredh (fir tree)
- MR monz; DR mânz; cf. Alb. mës (colt)
- MR bucuros; DR bucuros; (happy) cf. Alb bukurë (beautiful)
There are also some words which are of Slavic origin and which can be found in all the Eastern Romance languages:
- MR trup; DR trup (body); cf. Sl. trupŭ
- MR stăpon; Dr stăpân (master); cf. Old Slavic. stopanŭ, today's Bulgarian stopanin and Macedonian stopan
There are a number of Byzantine and Modern Greek words, several dozens which are also found in Daco-Romanian (Romanian language) and Aromanian and about 80 words that were borrowed via Macedonian and Bulgarian languages and other languages of the Balkans. Prior to the creation of the modern state of Greece, Megleno-Romanian borrowed very few words directly from Greek.
- Gr. prósfatos > MR proaspit; DR proaspăt; (fresh)
- Gr. keramídi > MR chirămidă; DR cărămidă (brick)
- Gr. lemoni > MR limonă, via Bulg. limon (lemon); cf. DR lămâie
The most important influence on Megleno-Romanian was the East South Slavic languages, this influence being more profound than the influence exerted by Greek on Aromanian. Linguist Theodor Capidan argued that the words borrowed show some phonetical features of the Bulgarian language dialect spoken in the Rhodope Mountains. There are many instances where basic words of Latin origin that can still be found in Daco-Romanian and Aromanian were replaced by Slavic words. In some cases, standard Romanian also independently borrowed the same word.
- Slavic. drob > MR drob; DR drob (liver)
- Slavic nevesta > MR niveastă; DR nevastă (wife)
- Slavic gora > MR goră (forest)
Eastern Romance languages Vulgar Latin language
- Eastern Romance substratum
- Romanian language
- Origin of the Romanians
- Romance languages
- Legacy of the Roman Empire
- The Balkan linguistic union
- Theodor Capidan, Megleno-Romanian dictionary (Romanian)
- Theodor Capidan, Meglenoromânii: istoria şi graiul lor (Romanian)
- Despre muzica folclorică a dialectului meglenoromân, by Dr. Mirela Kozlovsky (Romanian)
- Megleno-Romanii, by Dr. Emil Tarcovnicu (Romanian)
- Ethnologue, Megleno Romanian entry
- Megleno-Romanian Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words (from Wiktionary's Swadesh list appendix)
- Asterios Koukoudis, Studies on the Vlachs
Romance languages Western and Italo-Dalmatian Western Gallo-ItalicLigurianOthers Gallo-RhaetianRhaeto-RomanceOthers Occitano-
Ibero-RomanceAstur-LeonesePyrenean Italo-DalmatianAbruzzese · Apulian · Campanian (Neapolitan) · Lucanian (Northern Calabrese) · MolisanOthers Eastern and Sardinian EasternOthers Sardinian— Romanian language (articles) Subdialects Dialects / related languages Linguistics Historic evolution Institutions Other
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Romanian language — Not to be confused with Romani language. Romanian, Daco Romanian română, limba română Pronunciation [roˈmɨnə] Spoken in By a majority … Wikipedia
Romanian language — Romance language spoken mainly in Romania and Moldova. The name Romanian is usually identified with Daco Romanian, one of the four major dialects of Balkan Romance. Other dialects are Aromanian (Macedo Romanian), spoken in scattered communities… … Universalium
Megleno Romanian — ISO 639 3 Code : ruq ISO 639 2/B Code : ISO 639 2/T Code : ISO 639 1 Code : Scope : Individual Language Type : Living … Names of Languages ISO 639-3
Proto-Romanian language — Proto Romanian (also known as Common Romanian , româna comună or Ancient Romanian , străromâna) is a Romance language evolved from Vulgar Latin and considered to have been spoken by the ancestors of today s Romanians and related Balkan Latin… … Wikipedia
Official status of Romanian language in Vojvodina — Ethnic composition of Vojvodina showing areas with Romanian ethnic majority. The Romanian language is one of six official languages in the … Wikipedia
Megleno-Romanians — Vlaşi, Rumâri, Karadjovalides Total population 5,000 20,000 Regions with significant populations Greece 4,000 Republic of Macedonia … Wikipedia
Romanian grammar — Romanian (technically called Daco Romanian ) shares practically the same grammar and most of the vocabulary and phonological processes with the other three surviving Eastern Romance languages: Aromanian, Megleno Romanian, and Istro Romanian.As a… … Wikipedia
Romanian subdialects — The Romanian subdialects (subdialecte or graiuri) are the several varieties of the Romanian language, more specifically of its Daco Romanian dialect. All linguists seem to agree on classifying the subdialects into two types, northern and southern … Wikipedia
Romanian alphabet — The Romanian alphabet is a modification of the Latin alphabet and consists of 31 letters: Letter Name A, a a Ă, ă ă Â, â î / î din a B, b … Wikipedia
Romanian numbers — The Romanian numbers are the system of number names used in Romanian to express counts, quantities, ranks in ordered sets, fractions, multiplication, and other information related to numbers.In Romanian grammar, the words expressing numbers are a … Wikipedia