- Adaptation to global warming in Australia
According to non-governmental organizations such as
Greenpeaceand global scientific organisations such as the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the frequency and intensity of disasters brought about by greenhouse gas emissions and climate changewill grow very rapidly in the world. The risks are particularly severe in some regions of Australia, such as the Great Barrier Reefin Queensland, the Macquarie Marshesin New South Wales. The Department of Climate Change said in its Climate Change Impacts and Costs fact sheet: "...ecologically rich sites, such as the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland Wet Tropics,Kakadu Wetlands, Australian Alpine areas, south-western Australia and sub-Antarctic islands are all at risk, with significant loss of biodiversity projected tooccur by 2020" [ Climate Change - Potential impacts and costs [http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/impacts/publications/pubs/fs-national.pdf] |accessdate=2008-08-01 |format=pdf ] . It also said: "Very conservatively, 90 Australian animal species have so far bee identified at risk from climate change, including mammals, insects, birds, reptiles, fish and amphibians from all parts of Australia." Australia is already the driest populated continent in the world. Climate changeis recognized as one of the largest global crises. The issue has gained traction around the world as the the world becomes increasingly urbanized. This is because urbanizationbrings irreversible changes in our patterns of resource/waste production and consumption. Therefore, how to plan, manage and live in cities in the light of global warming largely determines and depends on the progress of the climate change phenomenon. [ Global Warming Threatens Australia's Tropical Biodiversity [http://news.mongabay.com/2006/0725-earthwatch.html] |accessdate=2008-07-29 |format=html ] .
According to projections by the Department of Climate Change in Australia, it is expected that national average temperatures would increase by 0.4 to 2.0°C [http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/impacts/projections/index.html] . Rainfall patterns and the degree of droughts and storms brought about by extreme weather conditions are likely to be affected.
Research has suggested that nearly three quarters of global energy consumption occur in cities, while emissions of
greenhouse gasesthat cause global warming come from urban areas [ Global Warming is a reality already with us [http://www.cana.net.au/bush/global_warming.htm] |accessdate=2008-07-29 |format=html ] . Nearly a third of these emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuelsused in urban transportation. Another third is formed from the energy used to regulate building temperature and to run personal appliances. The final third is contributed by the industrial sector. The main emitters of greenhouse gases are the construction, real estate, agriculture and metallurgical industries, the transportation sector, the industrial uses of fossil fuelsand the burning of biomass[ Top Greenhouse Gas Emitters Not Disclosing, Acting of Financial Risks of Climate Change [http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=7470] |accessdate=2008-06-22 |format=html ] . Some examples of daily activities that contribute to the amount of greenhouse gasesin the atmosphere include the use of carbon-based electricity in street lighting, driving motor vehicles, cooking, and the lighting, heating and cooling of housing.
If the policies of
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development( OECD) countries remain unchanged, specifically Australia and the United States, and also China and India, carbon dioxideemissions, which represents 72% of all greenhouse gasemissions, will increase by a third in the year 2020 instead of the 5% reduction as was approved in the Kyoto Protocol[ Ratification of the Convention on the OECD [http://www.oecd.org/document/58/0,3343,en_2649_34483_1889402_1_1_1_1,00.html] |accessdate=2008-07-29 |format=html ] .
With the current path of
climate change, the world population is entering an era of growing urban vulnerability. The accelerated pace of urbanization and the fact that a growing segment of the world's population now live in cities has significantly increased the vulnerability of urban areas as anthropogenichazards and agents for climate change. It will become increasingly difficult to distinguish between what is caused by humans and what is natural because both risks are overlapping.
Five Dangers of Climate Change
#Rise in sea levels: According to various projections, it is expected that sea level would register a rise of between 20 and 90 centimeters during the 21st century, partly due to the mass loss of
glaciersand ice caps.
#Land mudslides: The increase in the intensity, scale and frequency of rainfall is caused by periodic flooding in low-lying areas and regions, as well as mudslides in geologically unstable areas that are usually identified with the location of vulnerable illegal settlements. The areas built near rivers or in areas in river beds will be subject to additional flooding.
#Reduction of the quality and quantity of water: Flooding of urban areas tend to affect water treatment plants, wells, toilets and
septic tanks. The water treatment systems and garbage will also be affected thereby contaminating drinking water resources.
#Warming, cold waves and droughts: Urban systems are severely affected by intense episodes of thermal variability, such as hot and cold waves that impose extra energy consumption for the use of air conditioners and heaters, as well disrupting daily urban activities.
#Hazards to health: The socio-economic impacts of climate change in urban areas include increasing effects of urban heat islands, an increase in pollutants, especially during the warm seasons, and investment in thermal stations during winter, causing an increase in disease and death.
Reducing emissions of greenhouse gases
Emissions of greenhouse gases emanating from urban areas can be mitigated through four types of action:
Demand for energy in high-rise buildings is lower than that of suburban housing families. Infrastructure costs and emissions are lower if the costs for the consumption of land, transport and transfer times are lower. The number of people with cars in the city is much lower than in the suburbs, where public transport benefits from serious investments. The expansive urban growth should be avoided and discouraged at all costs.
Construction and energy efficiency
The operation and maintenance of residential buildings and offices are responsible for 38% of CO. Much of this figure comes from the air conditioning. It is therefore necessary to reduce energy needs for heating, lighting and cooling of buildings, but also increase efficiency in the use of technologies to build and own cycle construction.
Administration of transport demand
The vigorous promotion of mass transportation systems, pedestrian areas, non-motorized transport and use of more fuel-efficient cars can drastically reduce the total volume of carbon dioxide.
Production of cleaner energy
The shift from coal to natural gas in power plants, and the promotion of the use of clean and renewable energy sources such as wind and solar energy to replace energy from fossil fuels present significant opportunities.
According to the
IPCC's 2001 Assessment Report, no matter how much effort is put into mitigating climate change, some amount of climate change cannot be avoided. The report shared that adaptation should complement mitigation efforts [ Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report [http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/climate-changes-2001/synthesis-spm/synthesis-spm-en.pdf] |accessdate=2008-07-30 |format=pdf ] .
Adaptation is the approach that focuses on alleviating current problems brought about by global warming and climate change. It is the attempt to live with the changes in the environment and the economy that global warming has generated and will continue to generate. In short, it involves taking action to deal with the problems brought about by global warming and climate change. Examples include building better flood defences and avoiding the building of residential areas near low-lying, flood-prone areas.
In contrast, mitigation focuses on steps taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It is the set of preventative measures taken to curb global warming and climate change. Examples would be investing in clean fuel and using
renewable energysuch as wind and solar power.
Although national governments and local authorities are taking stringent mitigation measures, the need for adaptation is in the interest of dealing with climate change because carbon dioxide stays in the atmosphere for decades and is trapped in oceans for centuries, thereby resulting in a change in ocean chemistry and may adversely affect ocean life [ Oceans Found to Absorb Half of All Man-Made Carbon Dioxide [http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/07/0715_040715_oceancarbon.html] |accessdate=2008-07-29 |format=html ] . No matter how much humanity cuts greenhouse gas emissions now, the emissions released now will have an impact for decades. Therefore, adaptation is crucial for cities looking towards strengthening their resistance against the climate impact that past emissions have caused - to deal with the problems caused by greenhouse gas emissions pumped out years ago.
The determinants of adaptive capacity include the availability of financial resources, technology, specialized institutions and human resources, as well as access to information and existence of laws (both social and organizational) - attributes and resources that are usually scarce in developing countries and in small cities. In cities with a proven vulnerability to climate change, investment is likely to require the strengthening of urban infrastructure, including
storm drainsystems, water supply and treatment plants, and protection or relocation of solid waste management and power generation facilities.
Coastal regions are likely to need large investment in physical infrastructure projects, specifically projects related to the effects of rising sea levels. Projects such as the construction of protective barriers against rising sea levels, the building of
damsto retain and manage water, the redesign and development of port facilities and the improvement of the defense systems at coastal areas should be carried out.
Another measure of adaptation is the construction of new cities on higher ground, withdrawing the population away from vulnerable floodplains. This withdrawal would probably be managed over time, and may require a
public-private partnershipcomprising of a combination of market incentives such as the differential cost of insurance and re-insurance, and investment planning.
Internalizing the limitations of climate change requires proper planning for land use and the adherence to building codes. Planning for land use should channel new residential developments and productive investment towards less vulnerable areas. The inhabitants of slums and informal housing should receive assistance to regularize their properties, enabling low-income groups such as themselves to buy, build or rent homes in secure locations.
As a basis for planning, local authorities need a reliable and well-informed assessment of the risks faced by urban cities. The dissemination of such information, and establishing early warning systems and evacuation plans including warning systems for emergencies,
disaster responseand improved urban environmental management is crucial for adapting to the dangers of climate change.
Projects concerning adaptation to climate change in Australia
The Australian Government has pledged to spend some AU$1.8 billion (US$ on climate change. The country's national, state and territory policy makers have supported a National Biodiversity and Climate Change Action Plan that works to manage the impacts of climate change on wildlife. The nation is also interested to co-ordinate the management of its coasts and strives to lessen the effects of climate change on agriculture.
National Climate Change Adaptation Programme
Department of Climate Change (Australia)has come up with the National Climate Change Adaptation Programme which aims to work with industries, scientific organizations, residents and other governments to create workable solutions. According to the programme brochure, "Guidelines, planning tools and information about climate change impacts form the basis of the Programme" [ National Climate Change Adaptation Programme [http://www.climatechange.gov.au/impacts/publications/pubs/nccap.pdf] |accessdate=2008-07-31 |format=pdf ] . Some AU$14 million over a period of four years (2008-2012) is to be spent on this initiative [http://www.climatechange.gov.au/impacts/nccap/index.html] . The programme has forged strong research links in at-risk areas such as the Great Barrier Reef. Research conducted in the Great Barrier Reefis focused on developing methods to deal with climate change to protect the reef. It is hoped that this work will create a universal model for sustainable, cost-effective reef development.According to the programme's brochure: "National greenhouse mitigation policies and programmes are projected to reduce emissions by 94 million tonnes by 2010 - the equivalent of removing every motor vehicle in Australia from the road! However, the greenhouse gases already in the atmosphere and the growing emissions from around the world will affect our climate. Adaptation to climate change will complement action to reduce greenhouse gases" [ National Climate Change Adaptation Programme [http://www.climatechange.gov.au/impacts/publications/pubs/nccap.pdf] |accessdate=2008-07-31 |format=pdf ] .
Climate Adaptation Flagship
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization( CSIRO) started the Climate Adaptation Flagship [http://www.csiro.au/org/ClimateAdaptationFlagshipOverview.html] , with the aim of "enabling Australia to adapt more effectively to the impacts of climate change and variability and informing national planning, regulation and investment decisions". This is part of the National Research Flagships Program [http://www.csiro.au/partnerships/NRF.html] , designed to bring various stakeholders, i.e. research companies, industries, international connections, eminent scientists and CSIRO, together in hope of delivering practical solutions that address the pressing issues of Australia.
The Climate Adaptation Flagship project concerns both climate variability (or non-human causes, as defined by the
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) and climate change. The research budget for this Flagship for the year 2008-09 is close to AU$30 million [http://www.csiro.au/news/CAFLaunch.html] . There are four research prongs to this project:
# Pathways to adaptation: Concerns studies on climate science, analyses of economic and social situations and choices of adaptation, understanding the values of various affected and involved parties, effects of implementing adaption options, and the hurdles limiting adaptation.
# Sustainable cities and costs: Concerns research into facilities design, development of urban systems, integration of socio-economic and environmental studies to help stakeholders adjust to the effects of climate change on a regional level, and the development of high-quality urban development projects that improve the available body of information related to climate adaptation with a focus on cohesive urban construction and development.
# Managing species and natural ecosystems: Concerns research into forecasting nature's response to climate change, and coming up with adaptation options to improve its hardiness; minimizing the threats brought about by forest fires, habitat loss and
invasive species; and connecting climate change adaptation strategies into environmental protection and natural resource administration policies.
# Adaptive primary industries, enterprises and communities: Concerns research into providing workable adaptation solutions that will maintain the way of life of rural communities and industries adversely affected by the prospect of climate change, the use of participatory engagement to integrate policies that address the management of uncertainties brought about by climate change into administrative policies of the industries, choices of adaptation and tools to aid decision-makers and industries in lessening the impacts of climate change and to allow them to benefit from new opportunities, and the development of new techniques and technologies to enable industries to properly and effectively manage climate change.
National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility
This facility, hosted in
Griffith Universityin Queensland, aims to offer "national leadership in the development and implementation of adaptation research plans in key priority sectors such as primary industries, built environment, human health and biodiversity conservation" [ National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility [http://www.griffith.edu.au/research/nccarf/] |accessdate=2008-08-01 |format=html ] .
There are six roles to the facility:
# Synthesize and communicate existing and emerging national and international research on climate change impacts and adaptation
# Conduct integrative research on climate change impacts and adaptation
# Provide scientific leadership for the development of National Adaptation Research Plans
# Coordinate the Australian research community to implement National Adaptation Research Plans
# Work with the Department of Climate Change to establish and coordinate the work of adaptation research networks
# Work with the Department to lever funds for research identified in the National Adaptation Research Plans
The facility will be given $50 million in total over a period of five years to support its research. It will be working together with its partners: the Queensland Climate Change Centre of Excellence, the Queensland Department of Emergency Services,
James Cook University(Queensland), Macquarie University(New South Wales), Queensland University of Technology(Queensland), University of Newcastle (New South Wales), University of Southern Queensland(Queensland), University of Sunshine Coast(Queensland) and Murdoch University(Perth). It will also work with CSIRO and the Bureau of Meteorologyto share competencies.
The Local Adaptations Pathway Program
The Australian Government is of the view that local government is critical in managing the impacts of climate change and seeks to assist local councils in studying and applying adaptation options.The programme is the Australian Government's initiative to enable councils to go through climate change risk assessments and come up with action plans to prepare for the impacts the phenomenon may have on local society. Up to AU$50,000 will be released. A list of councils successful in procuring the funding is provided on the programme's website [http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/impacts/localgovernment/lapp.html] .
*Climate Change in Australia - Overview
Wind power in Australia
Solar power in Australia
Solar hot water in Australia
Biofuel in Australia
Coal mining in Australia
* Climate change on agriculture
Efficient energy use
Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme
Carbon capture and storage in Australia
Effects of global warming on Australia
Energy policy of Australia
Feed-in tariffs in Australia
Garnaut Climate Change Review
Greenhouse Solutions with Sustainable Energy
Mandatory renewable energy targets
Mitigation of global warming in Australia
New South Wales Greenhouse Gas Abatement Scheme
Renewable energy in Australia
Solar Cities in Australia
Solar hot water in Australia
Solar power in Australia
Wind power in Australia
* [http://www.climatechange.gov.au/impacts/nccap/index.html National Climate Change Adaptation Programme brochure]
* [http://www.csiro.au/org/ClimateAdaptationFlagshipOverview.html CSIRO Climate Adaptation Flagship Overview]
* [http://www.csiro.au/partnerships/NRF.html CSIRO National Research Flagships]
* [http://www.csiro.au/news/CAFLaunch.html CSIRO media release]
* [http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/impacts/projections/index.html Climate Change projections]
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