- Types of nationalism
Many scholars argue that there is more than one type of
nationalism. Nationalism may manifest itself as part of official state ideology or as a popular (non-state) movement and may be expressed along civic, ethnic, cultural, religiousor ideologicallines. These self-definitions of the nation are used to classify types of nationalism. However, such categories are not mutually exclusive and many nationalist movements combine some or all of these elements to varying degrees. Nationalist movements can also be classified by other criteria, such as scale and location.
Some political theorists make the case that any distinction between forms of nationalism is false. In all forms of nationalism, the populations believe that they share some kind of common culture. A main reason why such typology can be considered false is that it attempts to bend the fairly simple concept of nationalism to explain its many manifestations or interpretations. Arguably, all "types" of nationalism merely refer to different ways academics throughout the years have tried to define nationalism. This school of thought accepts that nationalism is simply the desire of a nation to self-determine.
Ethnic nationalism, or ethnonationalism, defines the nation in terms of ethnicity, which always includes some element of descent from previous generations - i.e. genophilia. It also includes ideas of a culture shared between members of the group and with their ancestors, and usually a shared language. Membership in the nation is hereditary. The state derives political legitimacy from its status as homelandof the ethnic group, and from its function to protect the national group and facilitate its cultural and social life, as a group. Ideas of ethnicity are very old, but modern ethnic nationalism was heavily influenced by Johann Gottfried von Herder, who promoted the concept of the " Volk", and Johann Gottlieb Fichte. Ethnic nationalism is now the dominant form, and is often simply referred to as "nationalism".
Anthony D. Smithuses the term 'ethnic nationalism' for non-Western concepts of nationalism, as opposed to Western views of a nation defined by its geographical territory. (The term " ethnonationalism" is generally used only in reference to nationalists who espouse an explicit ideology along these lines; " ethnic nationalism" is the more generic term, and used for nationalists who hold these beliefs in an informal, instinctive, or unsystematic way. The pejorative form of both is "ethnocentric nationalism" or "tribal nationalism," though "tribal nationalism" can have a non-pejorative meaning when discussing African, Native American, or other nationalisms that openly assert a tribal identity.)
Civic nationalism(or civil nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the statederives political legitimacy from the active participation of its citizenry, from the degree to which it represents the "will of the people". It is often seen as originating with Jean-Jacques Rousseauand especially the social contract theorieswhich take their name from his 1762 book "The Social Contract". Civic nationalism lies within the traditions of rationalismand liberalism, but as a form of nationalism it is contrasted with ethnic nationalism. Membership of the civic nation is considered voluntary. Civic-national ideals influenced the development of representative democracyin countries such as the United States and France. State nationalismis a variant of civic nationalism, very often combined with ethnic nationalism. It implies that the nation is a community of those who contribute to the maintenance and strength of the state, and that the individual exists to contribute to this goal. Italian fascismis the best example, epitomized in this slogan of Mussolini: "Tutto nello Stato, niente al di fuori dello Stato, nulla contro lo Stato." ("Everything in the State, nothing outside the State, nothing against the State"). It is no surprise that this conflicts with liberal ideals of individual liberty, and with liberal-democratic principles. The revolutionary Jacobin creation of a unitary and centralist French state is often seen as the original version of state nationalism. Franquist Spain,cite web|title= Fascism Anyone?
date=Spring 2003 |accessdate= 2007-02-09 |publisher=
Council for Secular Humanism] and contemporary Kemalist Turkish nationalism [" [http://www.eutcc.org/articles/8/20/document223.ehtml The Reality Of Turkey And The Chance To Find A Resolution To The Kurdish Question] ". Tarik Ziya Ekinci, paper for the EU-Turkey Civic Commission.] [Faruk Birtek, 2003. " [http://www.yale.edu/polisci/info/conferences/birtek1.doc From Affiliation to Affinity: The 'Costs' to the 'Private' in the Reconstitution of 'Citizenship' in the Transition from a Multi-Ethnic Empire to the Nation-State - An Essentialist Investigation of the 19th century Ottoman Case.] "] are later examples of state nationalism.
However, the term "state nationalism" is often used in conflicts between nationalisms, and especially where a
secessionist movement confronts an established "nation state." The secessionists speak of state nationalism to discredit the legitimacy of the larger state, since state nationalism is perceived as less authentic and less democratic. Flemish separatists speak of Belgian nationalismas a state nationalism. Basque separatists and Corsican separatists refer to Spain and France, respectively, in this way. There are no undisputed external criteria to assess which side is right, and the result is usually that the population is divided by conflicting appeals to its loyalty and patriotism.
Critiques of supposed "civic nationalism" often call for the eliminaton of the term, as it often represents either imperialism (in the case of France), patriotism, or simply an extension of "ethnic," or "real" nationalism.
"Expansionist nationalism" is a radical form of imperialism that incorporates autonomous, patriotic sentiments with a belief in expansionism. It is most closely associated with the likes of
Nazism( nationalist- socialism) and also shares some commonalities with American Manifest Destinyand neoconservatism.
Romantic nationalism(also "organic nationalism", "identity nationalism") is the form of ethnic nationalismin which the state derives political legitimacy as a natural ("organic") consequence and expressionof the nation, or race. It reflected the ideals of Romanticismand was opposed to Enlightenment rationalism. Romantic nationalism emphasized a historical ethnic culture which meets the Romantic Ideal; folkloredeveloped as a Romantic nationalist concept. The Brothers Grimmwere inspired by Herder's writings to create an idealized collection of tales which they labeled as ethnically German. Historian Jules Micheletexemplifies French romantic-nationalist history.
Cultural nationalism defines the nation by shared
culture. Membership (the state of being members) in the nation is neither entirely voluntary (you cannot instantly acquire a culture), nor hereditary (children of members may be considered foreigners if they grew up in another culture). Yet, a traditional culture can be more easily incorporated into an individal's life, especially if the individual is allowed to acquire its skills at an early stage of his/her own life. [ Daniele Conversi (2008) Democracy, Nationalism and Culture: A Social Critique of Liberal Monoculturalism Sociology Compass 2 (1) , 156–182 .] Cultural nationalism has been described as a variety of nationalism that is neither purely civic nor ethnic. [Nielsen (1999).] The nationalisms of Quebecand Flandershave been variously described as ethnic or as cultural. [Kymlicka, Will. (1999). Misunderstanding nationalism. In R. Beiner (Ed.), Theorizing nationalism (pp. 131-140). Albany: State University of New York Press, p. 133; Nielsen, Kai. (1999). Cultural nationalism, neither ethnic nor civic. In R. Beiner (Ed.), Theorizing nationalism (pp. 119-130). Albany: State University of New York Press, p. 126]
Third World nationalism
Since the process of
decolonisationthat occurred after World War II, there has been a rise of Third World nationalisms. Third world nationalisms occur in those nations that have been colonized and exploited. The nationalisms of these nations were forged in a furnace that required resistance to colonial domination in order to survive. As such, resistance is part and parcel of such nationalisms and their very existence is a form of resistance to imperialist intrusions. Third World nationalism attempts to ensure that the identities of Third World peoples are authored primarily by themselves, not colonial powers. [Chatterjee, Partha. "Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World," University of Minnesota Press, ISBN 0-8166-2311-2]
Examples of third world nationalist ideologies are
African nationalismand Arab nationalism. Other important nationalist movements in the developing world have included Indian nationalism, Chinese nationalismand the ideas of the Mexican Revolutionand Haitian Revolution. Third world nationalist ideas have been particularly influential among the raft of left-leaning governments elected in Latin Americain recent years, particularly on President of Venezuela Hugo Chavez's ideology of Bolivarianismwhich has been partly inspired by the anti-colonial ideals of Simón Bolívar.
Liberal nationalismis a kind of nationalism defended recently by political philosophers who believe that there can be a non- xenophobicform of nationalism compatible with liberal values of freedom, tolerance, equality, and individual rights. [Yael Tamir. 1993. "Liberal Nationalism." Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07893-9; Will Kymlicka. 1995. "Multicultural Citizenship." Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-827949-3; David Miller. 1995. [http://www.oup.co.uk/isbn/0-19-829356-9 "On Nationality."] Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-828047-5.] Ernest Renan[Renan, Ernest. 1882. [http://fr.wikisource.org/wiki/Qu%27est-ce_qu%27une_nation_%3F "Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?"] ] and John Stuart Mill[Mill, John Stuart. 1861. "Considerations on Representative Government."] are often thought to be early liberal nationalists. Liberal nationalists often defend the value of national identity by saying that individuals need a national identity in order to lead meaningful, autonomous lives [See: Kymlicka, Will. 1995. "Multicultural Citizenship". Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-827949-3. For criticism, see: Patten, Alan. 1999. [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1354-5078.1999.00001.x "The Autonomy Argument for Liberal Nationalism."] " Nations and Nationalism." 5(1): 1-17.] and that liberal democratic polities need national identity in order to function properly. [See: Miller, David. 1995. On Nationality. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-828047-5. For criticism, see: Abizadeh, Arash. 2002. [http://www.profs-polisci.mcgill.ca/abizadeh/FourArguments.htm "Does Liberal Democracy Presuppose a Cultural Nation? Four Arguments."] "American Political Science Review" 96 (3): 495-509; Abizadeh, Arash. 2004. [http://www.profs-polisci.mcgill.ca/abizadeh/EthnicCore.htm "Liberal Nationalist versus Postnational Social Integration."] " Nations and Nationalism" 10(3): 231-250.]
National conservatismis a political term used primarily in Europe to describe a variant of conservatism which concentrates more on national interests than standard conservatism, while not being nationalist or a far-right approach. Many national conservatives are social conservatives, in favour of limiting immigration, and in Europe, they usually are eurosceptics.
National conservatism is related to social conservatism, and as such may be heavily oriented towards the traditional family and social stability.
Anarchism and nationalism
Anarchists who see value in nationalism typically argue that a
nationis first and foremost a "people"; that the stateis parasite upon the nation and should not be confused with it; and that since in reality states rarely coincide with national entities, the ideal of the Nation Stateis actually little more than a myth. Within the European Union, for instance, they argue there are over 500 ethnic nations [ [http://eurominority.org/version/eng/ Eurominority (in English)] ] within the 25 member states, and even more in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Moving from this position, they argue that the achievement of meaningful self-determinationfor all of the worlds nations requires an anarchistpolitical system based on local control, free federation, and mutual aid. There has been a long history of anarchist involvement with left-nationalism all over the world. Contemporary fusions of anarchism with anti-state left-Nationalism include some strains of Black anarchismand Indigenism.
In the early to mid 19th century Europe, the ideas of nationalism,
socialism, and liberalismwere closely intertwined. Revolutionaries and radicals like Giuseppe Mazzinialigned with all three in about equal measure. [Hearder (1966), p. 46-47, 50. ] The early pioneers of anarchism participated in the spirit of their times: they had much in common with both liberals and socialists, and they shared much of the outlook of early nationalism as well. Thus Mikhail Bakuninhad a long career as a pan-Slavic nationalist before adopting anarchism. He also agitated for a United States of Europe (a contemporary nationalist vision originated by Mazzini). [ [http://raforum.info/imprimerart.php3?id_article=2221 Robert Knowles. "Anarchist Notions of Nationalism and Patriotism"] ] In 1880-1881, the Boston-based Irish nationalist W. G. H. Smart wrote articles for a magazine called "The Anarchist". ["The Raven", No. 6.] Similarly, Anarchists in China during the early part of the 20th century were very much involved in the left-wing of the nationalist movement while actively opposing racist elements of the Anti-Manchuwing of that movement.
Religious nationalismis the relationship of nationalism to a particular religious belief, church, or affiliation. This relationship can be broken down into two aspects; the politicisationof religion and the converse influence of religion on politics. In the former aspect, a shared religion can be seen to contribute to a sense of national unity, a common bond among the citizens of the nation. Another political aspect of religion is the support of a national identity, similar to a shared ethnicity, language or culture. The influence of religion on politics is more ideological, where current interpretations of religious ideas inspire political activism and action; for example, laws are passed to foster stricter religious adherence. [Juergensmeyer, Mark. "The Worldwide Rise of Religious Nationalism"," Journal of International Affairs", Summer 1996, 50, 1.]
Pan-nationalismis usually an ethnic and cultural nationalism, but the 'nation' is itself a cluster of related ethnic groups and cultures, such as Turkic peoples. Occasionally pan-nationalism is applied to mono-ethnic nationalism, when the national group is dispersed over a wide area and several states - as in Pan-Germanism.
Diaspora nationalism (or, as
Benedict Andersonterms it, "long-distance nationalism") generally refers to nationalist feeling among a diasporasuch as the Irish in the United States, the Jewish in the United States identifying as Israelis, or the Lebanese in the Americas and Africa, and the Armenians in Europe and the United States. [Humphrey, Michael. 2004. [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2501/is_1_26/ai_n6145318 Lebanese identities: between cities, nations and trans-nations] . "Arab Studies Quarterly", Winter 2004.] Anderson states that this sort of nationalism acts as a "phantom bedrock" for people who want to experience a national connection, but who do not actually want to leave their diaspora community. The essential difference between pan-nationalism and diaspora nationalism is that members of a diaspora, by definition, are no longer resident in their national or ethnic homeland. In the specific case of Zionism, the national movement advocates migration to the claimed national homeland, which would - if 100% effected - end the diaspora.
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