X-ray scattering techniques

X-ray scattering techniques

X-ray scattering techniques are a family of non-destructive analytical techniques which reveal information about the crystallographic structure, chemical composition, and physical properties of materials and thin films. These techniques are based on observing the scattered intensity of an X-ray beam hitting a sample as a function of incident and scattered angle, polarization, and wavelength or energy.

X-ray diffraction techniques

X-ray diffraction finds the geometry or shape of a molecule using X-rays. X-ray diffraction techniques are based on the elastic scattering of X-rays from structures that have long range order. The most comprehensive description of scattering from crystals is given by the dynamical theory of diffraction. [cite book|last=Azároff|first=L. V.| coauthors=R. Kaplow, N. Kato, R. J. Weiss, A. J. C. Wilson, R. A. Young|title=X-ray diffraction|year=1974|publisher=McGraw-Hill]
* Single-crystal X-ray diffraction is a technique used to solve the complete structure of crystalline materials, ranging from simple inorganic solids to complex macromolecules, such as proteins.
* Powder diffraction (XRD) is a technique used to characterize the crystallographic structure, crystallite size (grain size), and preferred orientation in polycrystalline or powdered solid samples. Powder diffraction is commonly used to identify unknown substances, by comparing diffraction data against a database maintained by the International Centre for Diffraction Data. It may also be used to characterize heterogeneous solid mixtures to determine relative abundance of crystalline compounds and, when coupled with lattice refinement techniques, such as Rietveld refinement, can provide structural information on unknown materials. Powder diffraction is also a common method for determining strains in crystalline materials.
* Thin film diffraction and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction may be used to characterize the crystallographic structure and preferred orientation of substrate-anchored thin films.
* High-resolution X-ray diffraction is used to characterize thickness, crystallographic structure, and strain in thin epitaxial films. It employs parallel-beam optics.
* X-ray pole figure analysis enables one to analyze and determine the distribution of crystalline orientations within a crystalline thin-film sample.
* X-ray rocking curve analysis is used to quantify grain size and mosaic spread in crystalline materials.

cattering techniques

Elastic scattering

Materials that do not have long range order may also be studied by scattering methods that rely on elastic scattering of monochromatic X-rays.
* Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) probes structure in the nanometer to micrometer range by measuring scattering intensity at scattering angles 2θ close to 0°. [cite book|last = Glatter|first=O. |coauthors= O. Kratky|title=Small Angle X-ray Scattering|year=1982|publisher=Academic Press|url=http://physchem.kfunigraz.ac.at/sm/Software.htm]
* X-ray reflectivity is an analytical technique for determining thickness, roughness, and density of single layer and multilayer thin films.
* Wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), a technique concentrating on scattering angles 2θ larger than 5°.

Inelastic scattering

When the energy and angle of the inelastically scattered X-rays are monitored scattering techniques can be used to probe the electronic band structure of materials.
* Compton scattering
* Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS)
* X-ray Raman scattering


See also

* Structure determination
* X-ray crystallography

External links

* [http://www.iucr.ac.uk/ International Union of Crystallography]
** [http://www.iucr.org/cww-top/crystal.index.html IUCr Crystallography Online]
* [http://www.icdd.com/ The International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD)]
* [http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/xrd.html Archives of XRD@JISCMAIL.AC.UK]
* [http://bca.cryst.bbk.ac.uk/bca/welcome.htm The British Crystallographic Association]
* [http://www.mrl.ucsb.edu/mrl/centralfacilities/xray/xray-basics/index.html Introduction to X-ray Diffraction] at University of California, Santa Barbara

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