Illyrian languages


Illyrian languages

language
name=Illyrian
familycolor=Indo-European
states=Once Illyria and some lands adjacent
region=Western Balkans
extinct=It is disputed whether the Illyrian languages can be considered extinct. Those who favor the extinction scenario estimate that the Illyrian languages went extinct about the 6th century AD
iso2=ine|iso3=xil

The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans [If the Messapian language was close enough to the Illyrian languages to be considered an Illyrian language, then Illyrian would also have been spoken in southern Italy.] in former times by groups identified as Illyrians: Delmatae, Pannoni, Illyrians, Autariates, Taulanti (see List of Illyrian tribes). Some sound-changes from Proto-Indo-European to Illyrian and other language features are deduced from what remains of the Illyrian languages, but because there are no [The Ancient Languages of Europe by Roger D. Woodard,ISBN-10: 0521684951,2008,Page 6:"... While the Illyrians are a well-documented people of antiquity, not a single verifiable inscription has survived written in the Illyrian language] examples of ancient Illyrian literature surviving (aside from the Messapian writings if they can be considered Illyrian), it is difficult to clarify its place within the Indo-European language family. Because of the uncertainty [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,Page 67,"Illyrians Illyrian language' Though almost nothing of it survives, except for names, the Illyrian language has figured prominently ...""] , most sources provisionally place Illyrian on its own branch of Indo-European, though its relation to other languages, ancient and modern, continues to be studied.

Language affinity

The Illyrian languages are part of the Indo-European language family. The relation of the Illyrian languages to other Indo-European languages---ancient and modern---is poorly understood due to the paucity of data and is still being examined. The Illyrian languages are often considered to be Centum dialects [A Grammar of Modern Indo-European by Carlos Quiles,ISBN 8461176391,2007,page 77,"The Illyrian languages are generally but not unanimously reckoned as centum dialects"] . Today, the main source of authoritative information about the Illyrian language consists of a handful of Illyrian words cited in classical sources, and numerous examples of Illyrian anthroponyms, ethnonyms, toponyms and hydronyms.

A grouping of Illyrian with the Messapian language has been proposed for about a century, but remains an unproven hypothesis. The theory is based on classical sources, archaeology, as well as onomastic considerations. Messapian material culture bears a number of similarities to Illyrian material culture. Some Messapian anthroponyms have close Illyrian equivalents.

A grouping of Illyrian with the Venetic language and Liburnian language, once spoken in northeastern Italy and Liburnia respectively, is also proposed. The consensus now is that Illyrian was quite distinct from Venetic and Liburnian [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 183,"... We may begin with the Venetic peoples, Veneti, Carni, Histri and Liburni, whose language set them apart from the rest of the Illyrians. ..."] [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 81,"... " In Roman Pannonia the Latobici and Varciani who dwelt east of the Venetic Catari in the upper Sava valley were Celtic but the Colapiani of the Colapis (Kulpa) valley were Illyrians ( ..."] , however a close linguistic relation has not been ruled out and is still being investigated.

A number of scholars believe the modern Albanian language to be descended from Illyrian. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9042146 Illyrian language - Britannica Online Encyclopedia ] ] Several Illyrian items have been linked to Albanian, yet these remain tentative or inconclusive for the purpose of determining a close relation.

Outside influences

The Ancient Greek language would have become an important external influence on Illyrian-speakers who occupied lands adjacent to ancient Greeks. Invading Celts who settled on lands occupied by Illyrians brought the Illyrians into contact with the Celtic languages. Intensive contact may have happened in what is now Bosnia, Croatia, and Serbia. Because of this intensive contact, and because of conflicting classical sources, it is unclear whether some ancient tribes were Illyrian or Celtic (see for example Scordisci and Iapodes) or mixed. Thracians and Paionians also occupied lands populated by Illyrians, bringing Illyrians into contact with the Thracian language and Paionian language.

Yet it was not Greek, Celtic, Thracian, or Paionian, but Latin that would come to displace Illyrian above the Jireček line. The Romans conquered all the lands in which Illyrian was spoken, and it is quite possible that Illyrian faded early in the Common era, perhaps even before the Slavic invasion of the Balkans.

Illyrian words

Since there are no Illyrians texts, sources for identifying Illyrian words have been identified by Hans Krahe [Krahe, "Die Sprache der Illyrier I. Die Quellen" (1955).] as of four kinds: inscriptions, glosses of Illyrian words in Classical texts, names— including proper names (mostly inscribed on tombstones), toponyms and river names— and Illyrian loanwords in other languages. The last category has proved particularly contentious. The names occur in sources that range over more than a millennium, including numismatic evidence, as well as posited original forms of placenames (Krahe 1955). The only Illyrian inscription (Messapian inscriptions are treated separately and there is no consensus that they are to be reckoned as Illyrian) is, perhaps, on a spearhead found at Kovel. [Gustav Must, reviewing Krahe 1955 in "Language" 32.4 (October 1956) p. 721.] A votive inscription on a ring found near Shkodër which was initially interpreted as Illyrian was shown to actually be Byzantine Greek [http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/bch_0007-4217_1959_num_83_2_5041] . Only a few Illyrian words are cited in Classical sources by Roman or Greek writers, but these glosses, provided with translations, provide a core vocabulary. Only four identified with an ethnonym "Illyrii" or "Illurioí"; others must be identified by indirect means:

*"abeis", "snakes"; cf. Latin "anguis", Old High Germ "unc", Lith "angìs", Gk "óchis" "snake", "echis" "viper", Toch "auk" "snake", Arm "auj", Russ "už", Skt "áhis", Av "aži"
*"bagaron", "warm"; cf. Phrygian "bekos" "bread", Eng "bake", Lat "focus" "hearth", Irish "goba" "blacksmith", Gk "phōgein" "to roast", Armenian "bosor" "red", "bots" "flame".
*"brisa", "husk of grapes"; cf. Alb "bërsí" "lees, dregs; mash", E "broth", L "defrutum" "new wine boiled down", W "brwd" "brewage", OIr "bruth" "heat, wrath", Thrac "brỹtos" "barley alcohol", "brỹtion" "wine must", Gk "apéphrysen" "to seethe, boil"
*"deuádai" "satyrs"; cf. Skt "dhūnoti" "he shakes", Gk "thýein" "to rage, seethe", "théeion" "sulfur vapor", Eng "dizzy", Old English "dwæs" "foolish", Paeonian "Dýalos" "Dionysos", Latin "furere" "to rage", "belua" "wild animal", Old Irish "dásacht" "rage, fury", Lith "dvesiù" "to perish, die (animals)", Hitt "tuhhai" "to gasp"
*"mandos", "small horse"; cf. Alb "mëz, mâz" "poney", Thrac "Mezēnai" "divine horseman", Mess Iuppiter "Menzanas" (divinity)
*"mantía" "bramblebush"; cf. Old and dial. Alb "mandë", mod. Alb "mën, man" "berry, mulberry"
*"rhinos", "fog, mist"; cf. Old Alb "ren", mod. Alb "re, rê" "cloud"
* "sabaia", "sabaium", "sabaius", "a type of beer"; akin to Eng "sap", Lat. "sapere" "to taste", Skt "sabar" "sap, juice, nektar", Avest. "višāpa" "having poisonous juices", Arm "ham", Greek "apalós" "tender, delicate", Old Church Slavonic "sveptǔ" "bee's honey"
*"sibina" (Lat.), "sibyna" (Lat.), "sybina" (Lat.); "σιβυνη" (Gk.), "σιβυνης" (Gk.), "συβινη" (Gk.), "ζιβυνη" (Gk.): "a hunting spear", generally, "a spear", "pike"; an Illyrian word according to Festius, citing Ennius; is compared to "συβηνη" (Gk.), "flute case", a word found in Aristophanes' "Thesmophoriazusai"; the word appears in the context of a barbarian speaking. Cf. Persian "zôpîn", Arm "səvīn" "a spit"

Some additional words have been extracted by linguists from toponyms, hydronyms, anthroponyms, etc.:

*"Agruvium" "along the coast between Risinum and Butua": IE *aĝr; cf. Skt "ájraḥ" "pasture, field", L "ager", Gk "agrós", Goth "akrs"
*"Bindus" "river god"; cf. Old Irish "banne" "drop", Skt "bindú, vindú" "drops, gob, spot", possibly Lat fōns "Bandusiae"
*"Bosona", "Bosna river", literally "running water": IE *bheg, bhog "to run"; cf. OSl "bĕžati" "to flee, run", Lith "bé(.)gti" "to flee", Gk "phébesthai" "to flee", "phóbos" "fear", Alb "boj" "to drive, mate", Eng "beck" "brook, stream", MIr "búal" "flowing water", Hindi "bhāg" "to flee"
*mons "Bulsinus", "Büžanim hill": IE *bhl.kos; cf. Eng "balk", Middle Irish "blog" "piece, fragment", Latin "fulcrum" "bedpost", Gk "phálanx" "trunk, log", Lith "balžiena" "crossbar", Serb "blazína" "roof beam", Skt "bhuríjāu" "cart arms"
*"Derbanoí", An"derva": IE *derv; cf. Eng "tree", Albanian "dru" "wood", Old Church Slavonic "drĕvo" "tree", Welsh "derw" "oak", Gk "dóry" "wood, spear", "drýs" "oak, tree", Lith "derva" "pine wood", Hittite "taru" "tree, wood', Thracian "taru" "spear", Skt "dru" "tree, wood", "daru" "wood, log"
*"Dizēros", An"dízētes": IE *digh; cf. Eng "dough", Gk "teîchos" "wall", Latin "fingere" "to shape, mold", Old Irish "com-od-ding" "he builds, erects", Old Russian "dĕža" "kneading trough", Armenian "dez" "heap", Skt "dehah" "body, form"
*"Domator", personal name; cf. Old Irish "damnaid" "he binds, breaks a horse", "dam" "ox", Eng "tame", dialectal Germ "Zamer" "ox not under the yoke", Alb "dem" "young bull", Lat "domāre" "to tame", "domitor" "tamer", Gk "dámnēmi" "to break in", "dámalos" "calf", Skt "dāmyáti "he is tame; he tames"
*"Loúgeon". Strabo in his Geography mentions "a marsh called Lougeon" (which has been identified as Lake Cerknica in Slovenia) by the locals ( Illyrian and Celtic tribes), "Lougeon" being Strabo's rendition of the local toponym into Greek. cf. Alb "lag" "to wet, soak, bathe, wash" (< PA *"lauga"), "lëgatë" "pool" (< PA *"leugatâ"), "lakshte" "dew" (< PA *"laugista"); further akin to Lith "liűgas" "marsh", OSl "luža" "pool", Thracian "Lýginos" "river name" [Strabo 7.43, "élos loúgeon kaloúmenon"]
*stagnus "Morsianus" "marshlands in Pannonia": IE *merĝ; cf. MHG "murc" "rotten, withered, boggy", OIr "meirc" "rust", Alb "marth" "to shiver, shudder", Lith "markýti" "to rust"
*"Naro": IE *nor; cf. Lith "nãras" "diving duck", Russ "norá" "hole", SCr "po-nor" "abyss"
*"Nedinum": IE *ned; cf. Skt "nadas" "roarer"
*"Oseriates", "lakes"; akin to Old Church Slavonic "ozero" (Serb-Croat "jezero"), Latvian "ezers", OPruss "assaran", Gk "Akérōn" "river in the underworld"
*"Pelso" (Latin authors referred to modern Lake Balaton as "lacus Pelso", "Pelso" being a hydronym from the local inhabitants), "Pelso" apparently meant "deep": IE *pels; cf. Czech "pleso" "deep place in a river, lake", Welsh "bwlch" "crack", Arm "pelem" "to dig"
*"Tergitio", "merchant"; cf. Old Church Slavonic "trĭgĭ" (Serb-Croat "trg") "market", Old Russian "tǔrgǔ" "market", Latvian "tirgus" [This group is considered to be cognate with the Italian city name of Trieste, and Albanian "treg" "market" is not a cognate but instead a borrowing from Slavic.]
*"Teuta", "Teutana": IE "*teuta-", "people"; cf. Lith "tauta" "people", German "Deutsch" "German", Old English "theod" "people", Old Irish "tuath" "clan", Umbrian "tota" "people", Oscan "touto" "city", Hittite "tuzzi" "army"
*"Tómaros", Tomorr mountain; cf. Old Irish "temel" "darkness", Middle Irish "teimen" "dark grey", OHG "demar" "darkness", "dinstar" "dark", Lat "tenebrae" "darkness", "temere" "by chance, rashly", Skt "tamas" "darkness", "tamsrah" "dark", Old Church Slavonic "tima" "darkness"
*"Ulcisus" mons, "Ulcinium" (city), "Ulcisia" castra; cf. E "wolf", Alb "ujk", Av "vəhrkō", Farsi "gurg", Skt "vṛkas", OSl "vlǔkǔ", Russ "volcica", Lith "vil~kas", L "lupus", Gk "lýkos"
*"Volcos", river name in Pannonia; cf. Old Irish "folc" "heavy rain, wet weather", Welsh "golchi" "to wash", obsolete Eng "welkin" "cloud", Old High Germ "welk" "moist", Old Church Slavonic "vlaga" "moisture, plant juice", "vǔlgǔkǔ" "wet"

Illyrian names

Illyrian

The following names derive from Illyrian or are not yet connected with another language. [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075, Page 72:"... Thus it seems generally agreed that the name of the Illyrian queen Teuta of the third century Bc derives from teutana, which means `queen'. ..."] [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,Page 71,"... The names Daza, Dasius and Dazomenus have been connected with Das- menus in Pannonia and Dazos in southern Italy. The meaning of these plausible correspondences is hard to determine: neither the internal links between the three principal Illyrian onomastic provinces nor those between ..."] [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,Page 186:"... around the head of the Adriatic were the Liburni, who occupied the coast and islands between Istria and the river Titus (Krka) and had been known to the Greeks since at least the eighth century BC. ..."]

*Agirrus
*Ballaios
*Bardyllis
*Bato
*Bircenna
*Blodus, Bledis
*Boria,Bora
*Daors
*Dazas
*Ditus
*Genthena
*Gentius
*Glavus
*Grabos
*Laiscus
*Messor
*Monunius
*Mytilus
*Pladomenus (from an inscription at Dyrrhacium)
*Plare(n)s
*Posantio
*Pravaius
*Scenobardos
*Scerdis
*Skerdilaidas
*Tatta
*Temus
*Teuda
*Teuta,Teutana means "Queen" in Illyrian
*Titus,name of the river Krka
*Vendes
*Verzo
*Zanatis
*Ziraeus

Celtic

The following Illyrian names, most of which occur in inscriptions from the upper Neretva river valley near Konjic in Bosnia, are considered to derive from Celtic [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 76,"... 76 The Search for Illyrians Pinnes and Tato are present, from the Japodes Diteio and Ve(n)do, and a few names are of Celtic origin, Kabaletus, Litus, Nantanius, Sarnus, Sinus, Sisimbrius and Vepus. ..."] [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 75,"... A few names which occur in the upper Neretva valley around Konjic appear to be of Celtic origin: Bolo, Bricussa, lacus, Mallaius and ..."] [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,Page 82,"... The number of Illyrian names in that area, Genthena, Tatta, Dasius and Thana is small compared with the Celtic: Aioia, Andetia, Baeta, Bidna, Catta, Dussona, ..."] [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 79,"... Four names are accepted as definitely Celtic: Nantia, Nonntio, Poia and Sicu. Mellito has a Greek and Celtic element, while the Celtic associations of Ammida, Matera and Seneca remain questionable. Rather than constituting evidence for the ..."] [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,Page 82,"... The number of Illyrian names in that area, Genthena, Tatta, Dasius and Thana is small compared with the Celtic: Aioia, Andetia, Baeta, Bidna, Catta, Dussona, Enena,laca, Madusa, Matisa, Nindia, Sarnus, ..."] [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 84,"... Apart from some names of Thracian origin, Bessus and Teres, and some Celtic names, Arvus, Belzeius, Cambrius, laritus, Lautus, Madussa and Argurianus (either Thracian or Celtic), the only name of south Illyrian origin is Plares. ..."]

*Arvus
*Belzeius
*Cambrius
*laritus
*Lautus
*Argurianus(Thracian or Celtic)
*Ammida(questionable associations)
*Matera(questionable associations)
*Seneca(questionable associations)
*Mellito(Greek & Celtic)
*Nantia
*Nonntio
*Laca
*Madusa
*Matisa
*Nindia
*Poia
*Sicu
*Aioia
*Andetia
*Baeta
*Bidna
*Catta
*Dussona
*Boio
*Bricussa
*Iacus
*Mallaius
*Mascelio
*Kabaletus
*Litus
*Nantanius
*Sarnus
*Sinus
*Sisimbrius
*Vepus

Thracian

The following names derive from Thracian [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 86,"... 86 The Search for Illyrians (two examples), Varanilla and Varidius. The Thracian names include: Auluporis, Auluzon, Bithus (three examples), Celsus (two examples), Celsinus, Cocaius, Daizo, Delus, Dida, Dinentilla , Dizas, Dizo (two examples) ..."] [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 84,"... Apart from some names of Thracian origin, Bessus and Teres, and some Celtic names, Arvus, Belzeius, Cambrius, laritus, Lautus, Madussa and Argurianus (either Thracian or Celtic), the only name of south Illyrian origin is Plares. ..."]

*Argurianus(Thracian or Celtic)
*Auluporis
*Auluzon
*Bithus
*Bessus
*Teres
*Celsus
*Celsinus
*Cocaius
*Daizo
*Delus
*Dida
*Dinentilla
*Dizas
*Dizo

Greek

The following names derive from Greek. [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 79,"... Four names are accepted as definitely Celtic: Nantia, Nonntio, Poia and Sicu. Mellito has a Greek and Celtic element, while the Celtic associations of Ammida, Matera and Seneca remain questionable. Rather than constituting evidence for the ..."] [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0058;layout=;query=toc;loc=cu%2Flon Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott] [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075, Page 217:"...Ceraunii whose name deriving from the Greek for `thunderbolt' links them with high mountains, ] [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,Page 98:"... the Illyrian Enchelei, the 'eel-men', whose name points to a location near Lake Ohrid. According to Polybius (5. ..."]

*Agron ("Αγρά", prey or "Αγρός", wild country).
*Mellito (Greek & Celtic) ("Μελλιτόεις", like honey).
*Thana ("Θανατός", death).
*Plator ("Πλατών", wide man).
*Pleuratus ("Πλευρά", side).
*Cleitus the Illyrian ("Κλείω", renowned, renowned man).
*Glaukias ("Γλαυκός", gleaming, gleaming man).
*Ceraunii, tribal exonym ("Κεραυνιοί", Thunderbolt-men).
*Enchelei, tribal exonym ("Εγχελείς", Eel-men).

Names of Gods

The following names derive from various languages and are names of Gods worshiped by the Illyrians. [ Wilkes. ...dominant Illyrian deity and some were evidently worshipped only in particular regions. Thus several deities occur only in Istria, including Eia, Malesocus, Boria and Iria. Anzotica was the Liburnian Venus and appears in the traditional image of the classical goddess.] [Wilkes. Other local deities were Latta, Sentona and the nymph Ica, praying in relief sculpture), Knez 1974 (ritual vessel), Baçe 1984 (temple architecture in Illyrian Albania).] [Wilkes. ...including altars dedicated by chiefs of the Japodes at the shrine of Bindus Neptunus at a spring near Bihaé (see figure 30).17 The first reported contact between Japodes and Romans occurred in 171...] [Wilkes. North of the Japodes, the altars to Vidasus and Thana dedicated at the hot springs of Topusko reveal the local 246 Roman Illyrians...] [Wilkes. Life and Death among Illyrians 247 identities of Silvanus and Diana, a familiar combination on many dedications in the territory of the Delmatae.] [Wilkes. ...the short cloak streaming out behind. The Illyrian town Rhizon (Risinium) on the Gulf of Kotor had its protective deity Medaurus...] [Wilkes. ...Armatus at Delminium (Duvno) who was evidently a war god of the Delmatae, and the Latin Liber who appears with the...]

*Eia
*Malesocus
*Boria
*Iria
*Anzotica
*Latra
*Sentona
*Ica
*Bindus
*Vidasus
*Thana
*Thetis
*Medaurus
*Armatus

References

*Crossland, R. A. "Linguistic problems of the Balkan area in the late prehistoric and early classical periods". "The Cambridge Ancient History", vol. 3, 2nd ed. Boardman, Edwards, Hammond and Sollberger. London: Cambridge University Press, 1982, pp. 834-849.
*Katičić, Radoslav. "Ancient Languages of the Balkans, Part One". Paris: Mouton, 1976, p. 149.
*Polomé, Edgar C., "Balkan Languages (Illyrian, Thracian and Daco-Moesian)". "The Cambridge Ancient History", vol. 3, 2nd ed. Boardman, Edwards, Hammond and Sollberger. London: Cambridge University Press, 1982, pp. 866-888.
*Wilkes, John, "The Illyrians". London: Blackwell, 1992.

Notes

ee also

*Messapian language
*Thracian language
*Paionian language
*Venetic language
*Albanian language

External links

* [http://www.wordgumbo.com/ie/cmp/illy.htm Short Illyrian Glossary]
* [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Illyrians/?yguid=232262967 Illyria and Illyrians]


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