- Nü Shu
Nü Shu (zh-tspl|t=女書|s=女书|p=Nǚshū|l=women's writing), is a
syllabary writing systemthat was used exclusively among women in Jiangyong Countyin Hunanprovince of southern China.
Unlike the standard written Chinese, which is logographic (with each character representing a word or part of a word), Nü Shu is
phonetic, with each of its approximately 600-700 characters representing a syllablein the local "Chéngguān" dialect (城关土话) of the Yao nationality. This is about half the number required to represent all the syllables in Chengguan, including tonal distinctions; evidently digraphs are used for the remainder.
It is not clear whether Chengguan is Mien of the
Hmong-Mien languages, a Kadai language, or a local dialect of Xiang Chinese, all of which are spoken by people officially classified as Yao.
Many Nü Shu characters are an italic variant form of
KaishuChinese characters , as the name of the script itself appears to be, though many others appear to derive from embroiderypatterns; the characters are formed from dots, horizontals, virgules, and arcs . Nü Shu easily lends itself to being embroidered, and is (or was) often found in embroidered form.
The script is written from top to bottom or, when horizontal, from right to left, as is traditional for Chinese. Also like Chinese, vertical lines are truly vertical, while lines crossing them are angled from the perpendicular. Unlike Chinese, Nü Shu writers value characters written with very fine, almost threadlike, lines as a mark of fine penmanship.
Until recently, women in Jiangyong County were discouraged from learning "Nan Shu" "men's writing", that is, the
Chinese written language. Nü Shu was therefore invented and used secretly, carefully guarded from men. Women learned the writing from their "sworn sisters" and mothers. Sometimes the characters were disguised as decorative marks or as part of artwork. Most of the writing takes a poetic form with lines of verse in 7 characters, or more rarely 5 characters . Typical contents of the writings were autobiographies, letters, folk songs, monody, or narration.
The language was suppressed by the Japanese in the 1940s, fearing that the Chinese could use the language to send secret messages.
Although Nü Shu has existed for centuries, it was not known to the outside world until recently, when academics "rediscovered" the script in a report to the central government in
1983. Scholars have since been able to collate only 2000 characters, a fraction of the total.
After the Chinese Revolution, literacy spread among women, and Nü Shu fell into disuse and the line of transmission was broken. Also, the Red Guard suppressed Nü Shu during the
Cultural Revolutionand destroyed Nü Shu artifacts [http://www.cambridge.org/resources/0521612357/3239_Ch12%20Additional%20text.pdf Additional text - Chapter 12] , An Introduction to Language and Linguistics, Jeff Connor-Linton and Ralph Fasold, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521847681] . At present no one living learned Nü Shu from her mother or sworn sisters, though there are a few scholars who learned it from the last of the women who did. After Yang Yueqingmade a documentary about Nü Shu, the government of the People's Republic of Chinastarted to popularize the effort to preserve this rare writing system, and some younger women are beginning to learn it.
Nü Shu works
A large number of the Nü Shu works were "third day missives" (三朝书, zh-p|p=sānzhāoshū). They were cloth bound booklets created by "sworn sisters" (结拜姊妹, zh-p|p=jiébàizǐmèi) and mothers and given to their counterpart "sworn sisters" or daughters upon their marriage. They wrote down songs in Nü Shu, which were delivered on the third day after the young woman's marriage. This way, they expressed their hopes for the happiness of the young woman who had left the village to be married and their sorrow for being parted from her [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4356095/ A language by women, for women] , Washington Post, Feb 24, 2004] .
Other works, including poems and lyrics, were handwoven into belts and straps, or embroidered onto everyday items and clothing.
at the age of 98. [ [http://observer.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,1312951,00.html Language dies with woman] ]
The language and locale have attracted foreign investment with money from
Hong Kongbuilding up infrastructure at possible tourist sites and a $209,000 grant from the Ford Foundationto build a Nü Shu museum scheduled to open in 2007. However, with the line of transmission now broken, there are fears that the features of the script are being distorted by the effort of marketing it for the tourist industry. Lisa Seedescribes the use of Nü Shu among 19th century women in her novel " Snow Flower and the Secret Fan".
Nü Shu is currently under proposal Proposal for encoding Nüshu in the SMP of the UCS ( [http://std.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n3287.pdf text] , [http://www.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n3340.pdf slides] ), 2007-9-17] for encoding in
Unicode, in the Supplementary Multilingual Plane, with 385 basic characters from U+1B000 to U+1B180, and 64 allographs from U+1B181 to U+1B1C1.
hiragana, a phonetic writing of Japanese used initially by women, that wrote such major works as " The Tale of Genji".
Láadan, an engineered languagecreated to better express women's modes of expression
* [http://keywords.oxus.net/archives/2004/02/29/much-ado-about-nushu-an-invited-post/ Much ado about Nü Shu] , by Laura Miller, 2004 Invited contribution to the weblog Keywords.oxusnet.net
* [http://www2.ttcn.ne.jp/~orie/home.htm "World of Nushu"] : a detailed history of Nü Shu and numerous illustrations.
* [http://www.ancientscripts.com/nushu.html 6-paragraph article] of AncientScripts.com
* [http://www.omniglot.com/writing/nushu.htm Details of Nü Shu at Omniglot.com]
* [http://english.cctv.com/program/RediscoveringChina_new/20050405/101906.shtml A documentary about Nü Shu on CCTV website]
* [http://itconversations.com/shows/detail612.html An audio interview with journalist and culturalist Lisa See on her research of Nü Shu]
* [http://www.bloomsbury.com/Authors/microsite.asp?id=919§ion=1&aid=1525 "The secrets of nu-shu"] , article by
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/china/story/0,,1576641,00.html The forbidden tongue] (article in The Guardian)
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,260388,00.html Chinese women lost for words] (article in The Guardian)
* [http://people.pwf.cam.ac.uk/ssb22/compos/nushu.mid Simple arrangement of an unidentified Nü Shu song in MIDI format] (explanatory notes are mid-way down [http://people.pwf.cam.ac.uk/ssb22/compos/ this page] )
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