- Great Northern Railway (U.S.)
Infobox SG rail
railroad_name=Great Northern Railway
logo_filename=Great Northern Herald.png
map_caption=Great Northern route map circa 1920. Red lines are GN; dotted lines are other railroads.
St. Paul, Minnesota, to Seattle, Washington
St. Paul, Minnesota
The Great Northern Railway Reporting mark|GN, running from
St. Paul, Minnesotato Seattle, Washington— more than 1,700 miles (2,736 km) — was the creation of the 19th century railroad tycoon James J. Hilland was developed from the St. Paul and Pacific Railroad. The Great Northern's route was the northernmost transcontinental railroad route in the United States and was north of the Northern Pacific Railwayroute. The Great Northern was a privately funded transcontinental railroad, though some of its predecessor roads received land grants. It was one of the few transcontinental railroads to avoid receivershipfollowing the Panic of 1893.
The Great Northern was built slowly to create profitable lines before extending the road further into undeveloped territory. Contests were held to promote interest in the railroad.
James J. Hillused early promotional incentives like feed and seed donations to farmers getting started along the line. Contests were all-inclusive, from largest farm animals to largest freight carload capacity.
The Great Northern had branches that ran north to the Canadian border in
Minnesota, North Dakotaand Montana. It also had branches that ran to Superior, Wisconsinand Butte, Montana. The Great Northern eventually grew to a system of over 8,000 track miles.
The mainline crossed the
Mississippi Riveron the Stone Arch Bridge in Minneapolis, near the Saint Anthony Falls, the only waterfall on the Mississippi. The bridge ceased to be used as a railroad bridge in 1978 and is now used as a pedestrian river crossing with excellent views of the falls and of the lock system used to grant barges access up the river past the falls. The mainline reached Seattle, Washingtonin 1893.
The Great Northern mainline crossed the
continental dividethrough Marias Pass, the lowest crossing of the Rockies south of the Canadian border. Here, the rails enter Glacier National Park, which the GN promoted heavily as a tourist attraction.
In 1931 the GN also developed the "Inside Gateway," a route to California that rivaled Southern Pacific's route between
Oregonand California. The GN route was further east than the SP route and ran south from the Columbia Riverin Oregon. The GN connected with the Western Pacific at Bieber, California; the Western Pacific connected with the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fein Stockton, Californiaand together the three railroads (GN, WP, and ATSF) competed with Southern Pacific for traffic between Californiaand the Pacific Northwest. With a terminus at Superior, Wisconsin, the Great Northern was able to provide transportation from the Pacific to the Atlantic by taking advantage of the shorter distance to Duluth from the ocean, as compared to Chicago.
In 1970 the Great Northern, together with the Northern Pacific, the
Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroadand the Spokane, Portland and Seattle Railwaymerged to form the Burlington Northern Railroad, today part of the BNSF Railway.
The Great Northern operated various passenger trains but the "
Empire Builder" was the GN's premier passenger train. The "Empire Builder" was named in honor of Great Northern's founder James J. Hill, who was known as the "Empire Builder."
Empire Builder:" Chicago-St. Paul-Seattle-Portland
Oriental Limited:" Chicago-St. Paul-Seattle (replaced by "Western Star" in 1951)
* "Western Star :" Chicago-St. Paul-Seattle-Portland
* "Fast Mail:" St. Paul–Seattle
* "Alexandrian:" St. Paul–Fargo - (1931–
* "Dakotan:" St. Paul-Minot
* "Winnipeg Limited:" St. Paul-Winnipeg
* "Red River Limited:" Grand Forks-St. Paul (later renamed "Red River")
* "Gopher:" St. Paul-Superior/Duluth
* "Badger Express:" St. Paul-Superior/Duluth (later renamed "Badger")
* "International:" Seattle-Vancouver, B.C.
* "Cascadian:" Seattle - Spokane
* Train Nos. 23-30: St. Cloud–Grand Forks via Barnesville and Crookston local
* Train Nos. 31-32: Sandstone-Willmar via St. Cloud local
* Train Nos. 35-36: Duluth-Grand Forks via Superior and Crookston local
* Train Nos. 43-42: Billings-Sweetgrass via Great Falls and Shelby local
* Train Nos. 43-42: Billings-Great Falls local – using GN's only
Budd Rail Diesel Car
* Train Nos. 47-48-49-50: Morris-Browns Valley shuttle
* Train Nos. 53-54: Watertown-Sioux Falls local
* Train Nos. 61-60: Minneapolis-Hutchinson via Wayzata local
* Train Nos. 99-100: Fargo-Minot via Grand Forks local
* Train Nos. 105-106: Sauk Center-Bemidji via Cass Lake local
* Train Nos. 131-132: Crookston-Noyes local
* Train Nos. 135-136: Crookston-Warroad local
* Train Nos. 161-162: Garreston-Sioux City local
* Train Nos. 185-186: Willmar-Huron via Benson local
* Train Nos. 197-198: Breckenridge-Larimore via Vance local
* Train Nos. 201-202: Grand Forks-Larimore local
* Train Nos. 215-215: Neilhart-Great Falls local
* Train Nos. 221-222: Havre-Great Falls local
* Train Nos. 223-224: Williston-Havre local
* Train Nos. 235-236: Havre-Great Falls Western Star connection – later used GN's only
Budd Rail Diesel Car
* Train Nos. 237-238: Havre-Great Falls
* Train Nos. 243-244-245-246-247-248-249-250: Columbia Falls-Kalispell shuttle
* Train Nos. 253-254: Oroville-Wenatchee local
* Train Nos. 255-256: Nelson, BC-Spokane local
* Train Nos. 285-286: Snowden-Richey via Fairview local
* Train Nos. 287-288: Watford City-Fairview local
* Train Nos. 291-292: Fairview-Sidney local
* Train Nos. 301-302: Fergus Falls-Pelican Rapids local
* Train Nos. 317-318: Sioux Falls-Yankton local
* Train Nos. 359-358: Vancouver, BC-Seattle local
* Train Nos. 365-366: Great Falls-Augusta local
* Train Nos. 367-368: Lewiston-Moccasin local
* Train Nos. 373-374: Great Falls-Pendroy local
* Train Nos. 401-402: Seattle-Portland (4 months per year) – joint Coast Pool train with
Northern Pacific Railwayand Union Pacific Railroad
* Train Nos. 459-460: Seattle-Portland – joint Coast Pool train with
Northern Pacific Railwayand Union Pacific Railroad
Amtrak's "Empire Builder"
Today, Amtrak's "
Empire Builder" uses the line, running mostly on ex-GN trackage (between the Twin Cities terminal and St. Cloud, Minnesota; Moorhead, Minnesota and Sandpoint, Idaho, and between Spokane, Washington and Seattle).
last = Wood
first = Charles
year = 1989
title = Great Northern Railway
publisher = Pacific Fast Mail
location = Edmonds, WA
id = ISBN 0-915-71319-5
last = Sobel
first = Robert
year = 1974
title = The Entrepreneurs: Explorations within the American business tradition
publisher = Weybright & Talley
chapter = Chapter 4: James J. Hill
id = ISBN 0-679-40064-8
last = Wilson
first = Jeff
year = 2000
title = Great Northern Railway in the Pacific Northwest (Golden Years of Railroading)
location = Waukesha, Wisconsin
id = ISBN 0-89024-420-0
last = Hidy
first = Ralph W.
coauthors = Muriel E. Hidy, Roy V. Scott, Don L. Hofsommer
year = 2004
title = The Great Northern Railway: A History
publisher = University of Minnesota Press
id = ISBN 0-8166-4429-2
last = Yenne
first = Bill
year = 2005
title = Great Northern Empire Builder
publisher = MBI
location = St. Paul, Minnesota
id = ISBN 0-7603-1847-6
Western Fruit Express
Glacier National Park (U.S.)
* [http://www.gnrhs.org/ Great Northern Railway Historical Society]
* [http://www.greatnorthernempire.net/ The Great Northern Empire — Then and Now]
* [http://www.gngoat.org/ Great Northern Railway Page]
* [http://www.csrmf.org/doc.asp?id=186 Great Northern Railway Post Office Car No. 42] — photographs and short history of one of six streamlined baggage-mail cars built for the Great Northern by the
American Car and Foundry Companyin 1950.
* [http://www.bnrailstories.com Burlington Northern Adventures: Railroading in the Days of the Caboose, written by former brakeman, conductor and trainmaster William J. Brotherton]
* [http://content.wsulibs.wsu.edu/cgi-bin/viewer.exe?CISOROOT=/maps&CISOPTR=363&CISORESTMP=&CISOVIEWTMP= Great Northern Railway route map (1920)]
* [http://content.lib.washington.edu/ University of Washington Libraries: Digital Collections] :
* [http://content.lib.washington.edu/pickettweb/index.html Lee Pickett Photographs] Over 900 photographs documenting scenes from Snohomish, King and Chelan Counties in Washington state from the early 1900s to the 1940s. Includes images of the Great Northern Railway.
* [http://content.lib.washington.edu/transportationweb/index.html Transportation Photographs] An ongoing digital collection of photographs depicting various modes of transportation in the Pacific Northwest region and Western United States during the first half of the 20th century. Includes images of the Great Northern Railway.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Great Northern Railway — Great Nothern RailWay (1900) Le Great Northern Railway est un ancien réseau de chemin de fer reliant les villes de St. Paul (Minnesota) à la ville de Seattle (Washington) aux États Unis. Le tracé long de 2 736 km, est développé au … Wikipédia en Français
Great Northern Railway — may refer to:* Great Northern Railway (Great Britain) * Great Northern Railway (Ireland) * Great Northern Railway (United States) * Great Northern Rail Services, (Australia) * Main North railway line, New South Wales (Australia), also known as… … Wikipedia
Great Northern Railway — ist der Name oder Namensbestandteil verschiedener Eisenbahngesellschaften: Great Northern Railway (Großbritannien) Great Northern Railway (Irland) Great Northern Railway (South Australia) Great Northern Railway (Vereinigte Staaten) … Deutsch Wikipedia
Great Northern Railway — (863 engl. Meilen = 1389 km), die von London nach dem Norden gehende Eisenbahn mit dem Sitze in London. Die G. ist aus der Fusion der London and York und der Direct Northern hervorgegangen. Beide wurden 1844 gegründet und führten zunächst einen… … Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens
Great Northern Railway Co. — U.S. railroad founded by James J. Hill in 1890. Hill bought a Minnesota railroad, the St. Paul and Pacific Railroad, in 1878, and extended it north to the Canadian border and west to the Pacific coast, encouraging thousands of homesteaders to… … Universalium
Great Northern Railway Depot — steht für: Amenia Great Northern Railway Depot Anacortes Great Northern Railway Depot Bemidji Great Northern Railway Depot Grand Forks Great Northern Railway Depot Kalispell Great Northern Railway Depot Mayville Great Northern Railway Depot… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Great northern railway (royaume-uni) — Le Great Northern Railway (GNR) est une ancienne compagnie de chemin de fer britannique créée en vertu du London York Railway Act de 1846. La ligne principale reliait Londres à York, via Hitchin, Peterborough et Grantham, avec une boucle de… … Wikipédia en Français
Great Northern Railway (South Australia) — Commonwealth Railways Diesellokomotive der NSU Klasse, ausgestellt im Museum Old Ghan Heritage Railway, Alice Springs Great Northern Railway 1879 1957 Streckenlänge: 1219 km Sp … Deutsch Wikipedia
Great Northern Railway (USA) — Die Great Northern Railway (GN) war eine Eisenbahngesellschaft mit Sitz in Saint Paul (Minnesota), die im Grenzbereich zwischen den USA und Kanada westlich von Chicago operierte und in die Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway (BNSF) aufging.… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Great Northern Railway (Ireland) — The Great Northern Railway (Ireland) (GNR(I) or GNRI) was an Irish railway company formed in 1876 by a merger of the Irish North Western Railway (INW), Northern Railway of Ireland, and Ulster Railway. The Ulster Railway was the GNRI s oldest… … Wikipedia