- Lateral quantum dot
A lateral quantum dot is a type of
quantum dotmade by imposing a small areaof decreased potentialin the two dimensional electron gas( 2DEG) by means of electrical gates such that electronsor electron holes are confined in the 2DEGplane. The particles are confined in one dimensionlaterally where they are free to move in the plane of the 2DEG. Once the potential is applied, it is energetically favorable for a certain number of electrons (or holes) to remain confined in a certain area of the 2DEG causing the remaining two-dimensional freedom to be removed and the three dimensional confinementof the electrons or holes. The 2DEG is confined between two semiconductorsheets such as InAs and GaAs. The fabricationprocess for a lateral dot is much different than that for a self-assembled quantum dot.
Think of it as inside a room with really low ceilings with a
trampolinewhere you can roll a ping pong ballall around it and across it. However, when a rather heavy object is placed in the centre, the ping pong ball rolls towards in the centre and becomes trapped. The electrical gate (heavy object) is what is cause the lowering of the potential (trampoline surface). The particle (ping pong ball) cannot go through the floor, through the ceiling or to the sides of the trampoline; thus it is confined!
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