Mataram Kingdom

Mataram Kingdom

Mataram was an Indianized kingdom based in Central Java between the 8th and 10th centuries AD and was established by king Sanjaya, he was also known as the founder of Sanjaya dynasty. The Sanjaya dynasty reign the kingdom, but then in later period the kingdom was ruled by Isyana Dynasty. Although initially eclipsed in power by the rival Sailendra Dynasty, by 850 it had become the dominant power in Java and was a serious rival to the hegemonic Srivijaya Empire.

Origin and formation

The early account of Mataram kingdom is mentioned in Canggal inscription, dated 732, discovered in Canggal village, Southwest from the town of Magelang. This inscription was written in pallava letter and in sanskirt, and tell about the erection of a lingga (symbol of Shiva) on the hill in the Kunjarakunja area. This area is located at a noble island called Yawadwipa (Java) which blessed with abundance of rice and gold. This inscription tells that Yawadwipa was reigned by king Sanna, which his long period of reign was marked with wisdom and virtue. After king Sanna died the kingdom fell into disunity. Confused because lost of ruler and patron, Sanjaya ascend to throne, he was the son of Sannaha (sister of Sanna). He was king that mastered holy scriptures, martial art, and also military prowess. He conquered neighboring area around his kingdom, his wise reign blessed his land with peace and prosperity for all his subjects [cite book | author= Drs. R. Soekmono,| title= "Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2", 2nd ed. | publisher = Penerbit Kanisius | date= 1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988 | location =Yogyakarta| pages =page 40 ] .

King Sanna and Sanjaya also known in Carita Parahyangan, a book from later period which mainly tell the history of Pasundan (Sunda Kingdom). This book mentioned that Sanna was defeated by Purbasora, king of Galuh, then he retreated to mount Merapi. Later Sanna's successor Sanjaya reclaim Sanna's kingdom and ruled West Java, East Java, and Bali. He also involved in battle with Malayu and Keling (against their king Sang Srivijaya). In main theme of Carita Parahyangan is corresponds to Canggal inscription.

From the time of its founding until 928, the kingdom was ruled by the Sanjaya Dynasty.The first king of Mataram was Sanjaya, who left inscriptions in stone. Although little is known about the kingdom at this time due to the dominance of the Sailendra. The kingdom leaves several temples and monuments. The monumental Hindu temple of Prambanan in the vicinity of Yogyakarta built during Hindu Mataram era, is the fine example of ancient Mataram art and architecture. The grand temple complex was dedicated to Trimurti (Shiva, Brahma, Vishnu), the three highest god in Hindu pantheon. It was the largest Hindu temple ever built in Indonesia, the evidence of immense wealth and cultural achievement of the kingdom.

Moving eastward

At certain point of the time, the centre of the kingdom was shifted from Central Java to East Java by Mpu Sindok, who established the Isyana Dynasty. The exact cause of move of location still uncertain. However probably have been caused by an eruption of the volcano Gunung Merapi or a power struggle. The later king Dharmawangsa ordered the translation of the Mahabharata into Old Javanese in 996.

Collapse

The kingdom collapsed at the end of Dharmawangsa's reign under military pressure from Srivijaya. Airlangga, a son of Udayana of Bali and a relative of Dharmawangsa re-established the kingdom (including Bali) under the name of Kahuripan. In 1045 Airlangga abdicated his throne to resume the life of an ascetic, and divided the kingdom between his two sons, Jangala and Kediri and from this point on the kingdom is known as Kediri.

List of rulers

* Sanjaya (835-838)
* Pikatan (838-850)
* Kayuwangi (850-898)
* Balitung (898-910)
* Daksa (910-919)
* Tulodong (919-924)
* Wawa (924-929)
* Mpu Sindok (929-947)
* Sri Isyana Tunggawijaya (947-985)
* Dharmawangsa (985-1006)

References

General

* Soekmono, R, Drs., "Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2", 2nd ed. Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988

Notes

ee also

* Sanjaya Dynasty
* Prambanan

External links

* [http://www.borobudur.tv/history_1.htm Early History of Java]
* [http://www.borobudur.tv/history_2.htm Sailendra]


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