Pleuronectidae


Pleuronectidae

Taxobox
name = Righteye flounders



image_width = 240px
image_caption = European plaice, "Pleuronectes platessa"
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Actinopterygii
ordo = Pleuronectiformes
familia = Pleuronectidae
subdivision_ranks = Subfamilies
subdivision =
Eopsettinae
Hippoglossinae
Hippoglossoidinae
Lyopsettinae
Paralichthodinae
Pleuronectinae
Poecilopsettinae
Rhombosoleinae For genera and species see text

Righteye flounders are a family, Pleuronectidae, of flounders. They are called "righteye flounders" because most species lie on the sea bottom on their left side, with both eyes on the right side.FishBase family | family = Pleuronectidae | month = February | year = 2006]

Their dorsal and anal fins are long and continuous, with the dorsal fin extending forward onto the head.

They are found on the bottoms of oceans around the world, with some species, such as the Atlantic halibut, "Hippoglossus hippoglossus", being found down to 2,000 m. The smaller species eat sea-floor invertebrates such as polychaetes and crustaceans, but the larger righteye flounders, such as "H. hippoglossus", which grows up to 2.4 m, feed on other fishes and cephalopods as well.

They include many important commercially fished species, including not only the various fish called flounders, but also the European plaice, the halibuts, the lemon sole, the common dab, the Pacific Dover sole, and the flukes.

Classification

In some classifications the subfamilies Paralichthodinae, Poecilopsettinae, and Rhombosoleinae are raised to the level of families. [cite journal | author = J. A. Cooper and F. Chapleau | year = 1998 | title = Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification | journal = Fish. Bull. | volume = 96 | issue = 4 | pages = 686–726] [ITIS | taxon = Pleuronectidae | ID = 172859 | date = 2 April | year = 2006]

According to FishBase there are 101 species in 41 genera and five subfamilies:
* Subfamily Eopsettinae
** Genus "Atheresthes"
*** Kamchatka flounder, "Atheresthes evermanni" Jordan & Starks, 1904.
*** Arrowtooth flounder, "Atheresthes stomias" (Jordan & Gilbert, 1880).
** Genus "Eopsetta"
*** Shotted halibut, "Eopsetta grigorjewi" (Herzenstein, 1890).
*** Petrale sole, "Eopsetta jordani" (Lockington, 1879).
* Subfamily Hippoglossinae
** Genus "Clidoderma"
*** Roughscale sole, "Clidoderma asperrimum" (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846).
** Genus "Hippoglossus"
*** Atlantic halibut, "Hippoglossus hippoglossus" (Linnaeus, 1758).
*** Pacific halibut, "Hippoglossus stenolepis" Schmidt, 1904.
** Genus "Reinhardtius"
*** Greenland halibut, "Reinhardtius hippoglossoides" (Walbaum, 1792)
** Genus "Verasper"
*** Barfin flounder, "Verasper moseri" Jordan & Gilbert, 1898.
*** Spotted halibut, "Verasper variegatus" (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846).
* Subfamily Hippoglossoidinae
** Genus "Acanthopsetta"
*** Scale-eye plaice, "Acanthopsetta nadeshnyi" Schmidt, 1904.
** Genus "Cleisthenes"
*** Sôhachi, "Cleisthenes herzensteini" (Schmidt, 1904).
*** "Cleisthenes pinetorum" Jordan & Starks, 1904.
** Genus "Hippoglossoides"
*** Flathead flounder, "Hippoglossoides dubius" Schmidt, 1904.
*** Flathead sole, "Hippoglossoides elassodon" Jordan & Gilbert, 1880.
*** American plaice, "Hippoglossoides platessoides" (Fabricius, 1780)
*** Bering flounder, "Hippoglossoides robustus" Gill & Townsend, 1897.
* Subfamily Lyopsettinae
** Genus "Lyopsetta"
*** Slender sole, "Lyopsetta exilis" (Jordan & Gilbert, 1880).
* Subfamily Paralichthodinae
** Genus "Paralichthodes"
*** Peppered flounder, "Paralichthodes algoensis" Gilchrist, 1902.
* Subfamily Pleuronectinae
** Tribe Isopsettini
*** Genus "Isopsetta"
**** Butter sole, "Isopsetta isolepis" (Lockington, 1880).
** Tribe Microstomini
*** Genus "Dexistes"
**** Rikuzen flounder, "Dexistes rikuzenius" Jordan & Starks, 1904.
*** Genus "Embassichthys"
**** Deepsea sole, "Embassichthys bathybius" (Gilbert, 1890).
*** Genus "Glyptocephalus"
**** Witch, "Glyptocephalus cynoglossus" (Linnaeus, 1758)
**** Blackfin flounder, "Glyptocephalus stelleri" (Schmidt, 1904).
**** Rex sole, "Glyptocephalus zachirus" Lockington, 1879.
*** Genus "Hypsopsetta"
**** Diamond turbot, "Hypsopsetta guttulata" (Girard, 1856).
**** "Hypsopsetta macrocephala" Breder, 1936.
*** Genus "Lepidopsetta"
**** Rock sole, "Lepidopsetta bilineata" (Ayres, 1855).
**** Dusky sole, "Lepidopsetta mochigarei" Snyder, 1911.
**** Northern rock sole, "Lepidopsetta polyxystra" Orr & Matarese, 2000.
*** Genus "Microstomus"
**** Slime flounder, "Microstomus achne" (Jordan & Starks, 1904).
**** Lemon sole, "Microstomus kitt" (Walbaum, 1792)
**** Dover sole, "Microstomus pacificus" (Lockington, 1879).
**** "Microstomus shuntovi" Borets, 1983.
*** Genus "Pleuronichthys"
**** C-O sole, "Pleuronichthys coenosus" Girard, 1854.
**** Ridged-eye flounder, "Pleuronichthys cornutus" (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846).
**** Curlfin sole, "Pleuronichthys decurrens" Jordan & Gilbert, 1881.
**** Ocellated turbot, "Pleuronichthys ocellatus" Starks & Thompson, 1910.
**** Spotted turbot, "Pleuronichthys ritteri" Starks & Morris, 1907.
**** Hornyhead turbot, "Pleuronichthys verticalis" Jordan & Gilbert, 1880.
*** Genus "Tanakius"
**** Willowy flounder, "Tanakius kitaharae" (Jordan & Starks, 1904).
** Tribe Pleuronectini
*** Genus "Kareius"
**** Stone flounder, "Kareius bicoloratus" (Basilewsky, 1855).
*** Genus "Limanda"
**** Yellowfin sole, "Limanda aspera" (Pallas, 1814).
**** Yellowtail flounder, "Limanda ferruginea" (Storer, 1839).
**** Common dab, "Limanda limanda" (Linnaeus, 1758)
**** Longhead dab, "Limanda proboscidea" Gilbert, 1896.
**** Sand flounder, "Limanda punctatissimus" (Steindachner, 1879).
**** Sakhalin sole, "Limanda sakhalinensis" Hubbs, 1915.
*** Genus "Liopsetta"
**** Arctic flounder, "Liopsetta glacialis" (Pallas, 1776).
**** Far Eastern smooth flounder, "Liopsetta pinnifasciata" (Norman, 1926).
**** American smooth flounder, "Liopsetta putnami" (Gill, 1864).
*** Genus "Parophrys"
**** English sole, "Parophrys vetulus" Girard, 1854.
*** Genus "Platichthys"
**** European flounder, "Platichthys flesus" (Linnaeus, 1758).
**** Starry flounder, "Platichthys stellatus" (Pallas, 1788).
*** Genus "Pleuronectes"
**** European plaice, "Pleuronectes platessa" Linnaeus, 1758.
**** Alaska plaice, "Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus" Pallas, 1814.
*** Genus "Pseudopleuronectes"
**** Winter flounder, "Pseudopleuronectes americanus" (Gill, 1864).
**** Littlemouth flounder, "Pseudopleuronectes herzensteini" (Schmidt, 1904).
**** "Pseudopleuronectes obscurus" (Herzenstein, 1890).
**** Cresthead flounder, "Pseudopleuronectes schrenki" (Schmidt, 1904).
**** Marbled flounder, "Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae" (Günther, 1877).
** Tribe Psettichthyini
*** Genus "Psettichthys"
**** Pacific sand sole, "Psettichthys melanostictus" Girard, 1854.
* Subfamily Poecilopsettinae
** Genus "Marleyella"
*** Comb flounder, "Marleyella bicolorata" (Basilewsky, 1855).
*** "Marleyella maldivensis" Norman, 1939.
** Genus "Nematops"
*** Narrow-body righteye flounder, "Nematops chui" Fowler, 1934.
*** Large-scale righteye flounder, "Nematops grandisquama" Weber & de Beaufort, 1929.
*** Long-fin righteye flounder, "Nematops macrochirus" Norman, 1931.
*** Small-mouth righteye flounder, "Nematops microstoma" Günther, 1880.
*** "Nematops nanosquama" Amaoka, Kawai & Seret, 2006. [cite journal | journal = Ichthyological Research | volume = 53 | issue = 3 | year = 2006 | pages = 223ff | title = "Nematops nanosquama", a new species of righteye flounder (Pleuronectiformes: Poecilopsettidae) from off the Marquesas Islands. | author = Amaoka, Kawai & Seret | doi = 10.1007/s10228-006-0337-3]
** Genus "Poecilopsetta"
*** "Poecilopsetta albomaculata" Norman, 1939.
*** Deepwater dab, "Poecilopsetta beanii" (Goode, 1881)
*** Coloured righteye flounder, "Poecilopsetta colorata" Günther, 1880.
*** "Poecilopsetta dorsialta" Guibord & Chapleau, 2001.
*** "Poecilopsetta hawaiiensis" Gilbert, 1905.
*** "Poecilopsetta inermis" (Breder, 1927).
*** "Poecilopsetta macrocephala" (Breder, 1936).
*** Fowler's large-scale righteye flounder, "Poecilopsetta megalepis" Fowler, 1934.
*** African righteye flounder, "Poecilopsetta natalensis" Norman, 1931.
*** "Poecilopsetta normani" Foroshchuk & Fedorov, 1992.
*** "Poecilopsetta pectoralis" Kawai & Amaoka, 2006. [cite journal | journal = Ichthyological Research | volume = 53 | issue = 3 | year = 2006 | pages = 264 | title = A new righteye flounder, "Poecilopsetta pectoralis" (Pleuronectiformes: Poecilopsettidae), from New Caledonia. | author = Kawai & Amaoka | doi = 10.1007/s10228-006-0344-4]
*** Tile-colored righteye flounder, "Poecilopsetta plinthus" (Jordan & Starks, 1904).
*** Alcock's narrow-body righteye flounder, "Poecilopsetta praelonga" Alcock, 1894.
*** "Poecilopsetta vaynei" Quéro, Hensley & Maugé, 1988.
*** "Poecilopsetta zanzibarensis" Norman, 1939.
* Subfamily Rhombosoleinae
** Genus "Ammotretis"
*** Shortfin flounder, "Ammotretis brevipinnis" Norman, 1926.
*** Elongate flounder, "Ammotretis elongatus" (Yarrell, 1839).
*** Tudor's flounder, "Ammotretis lituratus" (Richardson, 1844).
*** "Ammotretis macrolepis" McCulloch, 1914.
*** Longsnout flounder, "Ammotretis rostratus" Günther, 1862.
** Genus "Azygopus"
*** Banded-fin flounder, "Azygopus pinnifasciatus" Norman, 1926.
** Genus "Colistium"
*** New Zealand brill, "Colistium guntheri" (Hutton, 1873).
*** New Zealand turbot, "Colistium nudipinnis" (Waite, 1911).
** Genus "Oncopterus"
*** Remo flounder, "Oncopterus darwinii" Steindachner, 1874.
** Genus "Pelotretis"
*** Southern lemon sole, "Pelotretis flavilatus" Waite, 1911.
** Genus "Peltorhamphus"
*** Speckled sole, "Peltorhamphus latus" James, 1972.
*** New Zealand sole, "Peltorhamphus novaezeelandiae" Günther, 1862.
*** "Peltorhamphus tenuis" James, 1972.
** Genus "Psammodiscus"
[
Black flounder, "Rhombosolea retiaria"]
*** Indonesian ocellated flounder, "Psammodiscus ocellatus" (Starks & Thompson, 1910).
** Genus "Rhombosolea"
*** Yellowbelly flounder, "Rhombosolea leporina" Günther, 1862.
*** New Zealand flounder, "Rhombosolea plebeia" (Richardson, 1843).
*** Black flounder, "Rhombosolea retiaria" Hutton, 1873
*** Greenback flounder, "Rhombosolea tapirina" Günther, 1862.
** Genus "Taratretis"
*** Derwent flounder, "Taratretis derwentensis" Last, 1978.

References


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