- Katsuji Matsumoto
.Uchida, Shizue (nihongo2|内田静枝), ed. (2006) nihongo3|"Katsuji Matsumoto: The Illustrator Who Created the Showa Era's 'Cute!'"|松本かつぢ----昭和の可愛い!をつくったイラストレーター|Matsumoto Katsuji--Shōwa no kawaii! o tsukutta irasutoreetaa, p. 121. Kawade Shobō Shinsha. ISBN 4-309-72751-4] |group=nb #tag:ref|The Matsumoto Katsuji 松本勝治 of this article should not be confused with animation director Matsumoto Katsuji 松本 勝次 who has worked on the "
Sailor Moon" anime (note difference in the fourth kanji). [ [http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/encyclopedia/people.php?id=41519 Katsuji MATSUMOTO] Anime News Network] |group=nb Matsumoto's 16-page "The Mysterious Clover" (1934) is recognized as a pioneering work in the field of manga,Natsume, Fusanosuke (夏目房之介) (2006) nihongo3|"Katsuji Matsumoto's Cutting-Edge Expression of Dramatic Action"|早かった松本かつぢの活劇表現|Hayakatta Matsumoto Katsuji no katsugeki hyōgen Mainichi Shimbun, May 30.] Thorn, Matt (2008) [http://matt-thorn.com/shoujo_manga/colloque/index.php "The Multi-Faceted Universe of Shōjo Manga"] , presented at " [http://www.mcjp.asso.fr/pjanv2008/conferences/manga/index.html Le manga, 60 ans après...] ", Paris, March 15.] but he is best known for his shōjo manga "Kurukuru Kurumi-chan", serialized from 1938 to 1940, and again from 1949 to 1954.Matsumoto, Katsuji (1987) "Kurukuru Kurumi-chan" (nihongo2|くるくるクルミちゃん) Vol. 1. Tokyo: Kokusho Kankoukai (nihongo2|国書刊行会), ISBN 9784336022776.] Matsumoto, Katsuji (1987) "Kurukuru Kurumi-chan" (nihongo2|くるくるクルミちゃん) Vol. 2. Tokyo: Kokusho Kankoukai (nihongo2|国書刊行会), ISBN 9784336022783.]
His illustrations were popular from the 1930s through the 1950s, and he contributed illustrations to numerous popular girls' novels by some of the period's most famous authors, including
Yasunari Kawabataand Nobuko Yoshiya."Katsuji Matsumoto's World" (Matsumoto Katsuji no Sekai 松本かつぢの世界), the official web site maintained by the Matsumoto estate: http://katsudi.com/katsudiinfo1.html. (Accessed September 2, 2008).] Thorn, Matt (2006) "Pre-World War II Shōjo Manga and Illustrations." http://matt-thorn.com/shoujo_manga/prewar_shoujo/index.html. (Accessed September 2, 2008).] He was also a prolific illustrator of children's books and created merchandise for babies, small children, and girls. The Gallery Katsuji Matsumoto in Tokyo is managed by his surviving children.
Early life and professional debut
Matsumoto was born in Kobe, the son of Toraji (nihongo2|寅治) and Ishi (nihongo2|いし) Matsumoto, but moved with his family to Tokyo at the age of eight. At the age of 13, he began attending what was then called Rikkyō (St. Paul's) Middle School.#tag:ref|The school is today known as Rikkyō (St. Paul's) Junior & Senior High School in Ikebukuro. It should be noted that in the prewar period, nihongo3|"middle school"|中学校|chūgakkō referred to what would today be considered an academically elite high school or "prep school."Uchida, Shizue (nihongo2|内田静枝), the Yayoi Museum (nihongo2|弥生美術館) (2005) nihongo3|"A Schoolgirl's Handbook: A Maiden's Life in the Taisho and Showa Periods"|女學生手帳〜大正・昭和 乙女らいふ|Jogakusei techō: Taishō/Shōwa otome raifu, pp. 18-19. Tokyo: Kawade Shobō Shinsha (nihongo2|河出書房新社) ISBN 4-309-72742-5.] |group=nb Through the introduction of a teacher at Rikkyō, Matsumoto began drawing illustrations for the magazine nihongo3|"New Youth"|新青年|Shinseinen at the age of 17. Matsumoto withdrew from Rikkyō at the age of 18 and began attending the nihongo3|"Kawabata Art School"|川端画学校|Kawabata ga gakkō. During this time he contributed drawings to such magazines as nihongo3|"Girls' World"|少女世界|Shōjo sekai and nihongo3|"Boys' World"|少年世界|Shōnen sekai. It was during this period that Matsumoto was inspired by illustrator
Kōji Fukiyato become an illustrator in the field of girls' media. [Hiramatsu, Yoshiyuki (nihongo2|平松義行), ed. (1985, revised 1996) nihongo3|"In Pursuit of the Cheerful Dreams of Girls: The World of Katsuji Matsumoto"|少女の明るい夢を追求ーー松本かつぢの世界|Shōjo no akarui yume o tsuikyū--Matsumoto Katsuji no sekai, p. 19. Tokyo: Sanrio.] (Matsumoto's younger sister, Ryōko (nihongo2|龍子), would eventually marry Fukiya. [Uchida, Shizue (nihongo2|内田静枝), ed. (2006) nihongo3|"Katsuji Matsumoto: The Illustrator Who Created the Showa Era's 'Cute!'"|松本かつぢ----昭和の可愛い!をつくったイラストレーター|Matsumoto Katsuji--Shōwa no kawaii! o tsukutta irasutoreetaa, p. 92. Kawade Shobō Shinsha. ISBN 4-309-72751-4] )
Following the devastation of Tokyo, including its publishing industry, in the
1923 Great Kantō earthquake, Matsumoto decided to try his fortunes overseas, and managed to obtain free passage to Shanghai.Uchida, Shizue (nihongo2|内田静枝), ed. (2006) nihongo3|"Katsuji Matsumoto: The Illustrator Who Created the Showa Era's 'Cute!'"|松本かつぢ----昭和の可愛い!をつくったイラストレーター|Matsumoto Katsuji--Shōwa no kawaii! o tsukutta irasutoreetaa, pp. 94, 121. Kawade Shobō Shinsha. ISBN 4-309-72751-4] His hope was to eventually make his way to Paris. In Shanghai, he earned money by contributing illustrations and articles to the nihongo3|"Shanghai Daily Newspaper"|上海日日新聞|Shanhai nichinichi shinbun, but when he turned twenty years of age, he was forced to return to Japan to report for the draft. He was rejected for military service because he was flat footed.
Early career and marriage
Matsumoto's first forum for steady work was the magazine nihongo3|"Girls' Illustrated"|少女画報|Shōjo Gahō, to which he contributed from 1928 to 1938.Uchida, Shizue (nihongo2|内田静枝), ed. (2006) nihongo3|"Katsuji Matsumoto: The Illustrator Who Created the Showa Era's 'Cute!'"|松本かつぢ----昭和の可愛い!をつくったイラストレーター|Matsumoto Katsuji--Shōwa no kawaii! o tsukutta irasutoreetaa, pp. 124-125. Kawade Shobō Shinsha. ISBN 4-309-72751-4] Matsumoto first ventured into manga in "Shōjo Gahō", creating a series of illustrated narratives featuring a lively Chinese girl named Poku-chan, which was irregularly published between November 1930 and March 1934. The Poku-chan strips were drawn in a stylized, almost abstract,
Art Decomanner. [cite conference
first = Matt
last = Thorn
authorlink = Matt Thorn
title = Commercialization & the Loss of Innocence: Children’s Manga from the 1920s to the Present
booktitle = [http://www.english.ufl.edu/comics/2006/ Comics and Childhood: The Fourth Annual Conference on Comics]
location = University of Florida, Gainesville]
Matsumoto could draw in a wide range of styles, from the realistic to the near-abstract, but all of his work was distinguished by clean, almost geometrical lines and a strictly Modern sensibility. While he illustrated numerous dramatic girls' novels, his style was better suited to sunny, playful, or humorous work. In 1935, Matsumoto began to work for the magazine that would become his primary forum, nihongo3|"Girls' Friend"|少女の友|Shōjo no tomo. "Shōjo no tomo", with its modern, stylish image, was the ideal magazine for Matsumoto.Endoh, Hiroko (遠藤寛子) (2004) nihongo3|"Shōjo no tomo" and Era: An Editor's Courage Motoi Uchiyama"|『少女の友』とその時代ーー編集者の勇気 内山基, |"Shōjo no tomo" to sono jidai: henshūsha no yūki Uchiyama Motoi pp. 55-59 Tokyo:Honnoizumisha (本の泉社) ISBN 978-4880238210]
In 1932, at the age of 28, Matsumoto was wed to Ayako Nimori (nihongo2|二森あや子). They went on to have seven children (four boys, three girls) together. Because Ayako was an only child, the decision was made to have the firstborn male child legally adopted by her parents in order to carry on the Nimori name. On official records, therefore, Ki Nimori (nihongo2|二森騏, born 1933) is listed as the younger brother of Ayako, and therefore the brother-in-law of Matsumoto.Under the Japanese "ie" family system that was the law of the land prior to the end of World War II, it was common in cases where there was no male heir for a groom to be legally adopted by his bride's parents and become the successor to her family name. Since Katsuji was himself the eldest son of and successor to the Matsumoto family, this was not an option.] Details regarding Matsumoto's parents, exact date of birth and date of death, education, children, publication history of "Kurukuru Kurumi-chan", atelier activities, and personality and habits were provided to
Matt Thornin three personal e-mails from Matsumoto's daughter Michie Utsuhara (宇津原充地栄), dated July 22, 23, and 28, 2008. These facts can be verified by Ms. Utsuhara, who is President of Mastumoto Katsuji Art Promotion, Inc. The telephone/fax number is +81-3-3707-3503, and the address is 4-14-18 Tamagawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 158-0094, Japan. She can be reached by e-mail at email@example.com]
"The Mysterious Clover"
In 1934, Matsumoto drew his first full-fledged manga, a 16-page story titled Nihongo3|"The Mysterious Clover"|？（なぞ）のクローバー|Nazo no kurōbaa. Printed as an over-sized pamphlet with a sturdy cardboard cover, and included as a premium in the April issue of "Shōjo no tomo", "The Mysterious Clover" was a variation on "
The Scarlet Pimpernel" and " Zorro". The protagonist of "The Mysterious Clover" is a young girl who protects the poor peasants from the cruel and greedy nobles. This work is remarkable for its use of varying angles, including bird's-eye views, and variation in the size of panels. Sakō Shishido (nihongo2|宍戸左行), influenced by American newspaper strips, had used similar techniques in his 1930 Nihongo3|"Speed Tarō"|スピード太郎|Supiido Tarō, but in a far cruder drawing style than Matsumoto's. [Shishido, Sakoh (nihongo2|宍戸左行) (1988) Nihongo3|"Speed Tarō"|スピード太郎|Supiido Tarō, Tokyo: San'ichi shobō (nihongo2|三一書房), ISBN 978-4380885495] "The Mysterious Clover" had been neglected for decades by manga scholars until it was displayed at a 2006 exhibition at the Yayoi Art Museum, where it caught the eye of Fusanosuke Natsume, who then wrote about it on his blog and in a newspaper column.
Matsumoto's most famous work is his manga "Kurukuru Kurumi-chan" (nihongo2|くるくるクルミちゃん),"Kurukuru"--nihongo2|くるくる--means "spinning" or "winding", "-chan"--nihongo2|ちゃん--is a diminutive honorific that can be translated as "little" or "dear".] Uchida, Shizue (nihongo2|内田静枝), ed. (2006) nihongo3|"Katsuji Matsumoto: The Illustrator Who Created the Showa Era's 'Cute!'"|松本かつぢ----昭和の可愛い!をつくったイラストレーター|Matsumoto Katsuji--Shōwa no kawaii! o tsukutta irasutoreetaa, p. 24. Kawade Shobō Shinsha. ISBN 4-309-72751-4] which was serialized in "Shōjo no tomo" from January 1938 until December 1940. Featuring the daily antics of a little girl named Kurumi (nihongo2|クルミ, meaning "walnut"), each episode was a self-contained story, usually running 4 pages and 22 panels. The strip rarely ventured far from everyday reality, and was characterized by a gradually building absurdity that rarely descended to simple slapstick.
In the earliest episodes, Kurumi-chan is roughly four heads tall, and would seem to be roughly nine or ten years old. Over the years, though, Kurumi's proportions changed, until by the 1950s she had become an extremely stylized character no more than two heads high, and of unknown age.
The strip was revived after the war in the magazine "Shōjo" ("Girl") under the title "Kurumi-chan" and ran from November 1949 to February 1954. [Uchida, Shizue (nihongo2|内田静枝), ed. (2006) nihongo3|"Katsuji Matsumoto: The Illustrator Who Created the Showa Era's 'Cute!'"|松本かつぢ----昭和の可愛い!をつくったイラストレーター|Matsumoto Katsuji--Shōwa no kawaii! o tsukutta irasutoreetaa, p. 122. Tokyo: Kawade Shobō Shinsha. ISBN 4-309-72751-4]
While working on "Kurukuru Kurumi-chan", Matsumoto continued to do freestanding illustrations, in both color and black and white, and also to illustrate girls' fiction and poetry. Matsumoto was one of the most popular and influential illustrators working in girls' media, and he continued to be a popular illustrator through the early 1950s. [Kondoh, Tomie (nihongo2|近藤富枝), supervising editor (1992) nihongo3|"A Collection of Memorable Scenes from Boys' and Girls' Magazines of the Taisho and Showa Periods"|大正・昭和少年少女雑誌名場面集|Taishō•Shōwa shōnen shōjo zasshi meibamen shuu, p. 47. Tokyo:
Gakken(nihongo2|学研).] [Takahashi, Yohji (nihongo2|高橋洋二), ed. (1984) nihongo3|"Picture Books II"|絵本Ⅱ|Ehon II, p. 36. Bessatsu Taiyō (nihongo2|別冊太陽) series, Tokyo: Heibonsha (nihongo2|平凡社) ISBN 978-4582920470.] He worked with such prominent Japanese authors and poets as Nobuko Yoshiyaand Yaso Saijō, and adapted many works by non-Japanese author's, including Katherine Mansfield's short story The Doll's House, to the short-lived genre of nihongo3|"picture stories"|絵物語| emonogatari. [Hiramatsu, Yoshiyuki (nihongo2|平松義行), ed. (1985, revised 1996) nihongo3|"In Pursuit of the Cheerful Dreams of Girls: The World of Katsuji Matsumoto"|少女の明るい夢を追求ーー松本かつぢの世界|Shōjo no akarui yume o tsuikyū--Matsumoto Katsuji no sekai, pp. 34-48. Tokyo: Sanrio.]
Although Matsumoto drew in a wide range of styles, certain features remain consistent. His characters have an air of intelligence without melancholy, and of cheerful optimism that is never saccharine. Other popular illustrators of the day were better suited to the niches in which Matsumoto was not in his element. The multi-talented and enormously popular
Jun'ichi Nakahara(nihongo2|中原淳一) drew girls who were intelligent and stylish, but humor was not his forte. [Yanase, Takashi (nihongo2|やなせたかし), supervising editor (1986) nihongo3|"Revive! Lyrical Illustration--Legend of the beautiful girl: From the Roots of Lyrical Illustration to the Birth of Neo Sensualism"|よみがえれ！抒情画 美少女の伝説〜抒情画のルーツから新感覚派の誕生まで|Yomigaere! Jojōga--bishōjo no densetsu: jojōga no rūtsu kara shinkankakuha no tanjō made, p. 54. Tokyo: SanrioISBN 4-387-86065-0.] In the genre of sentimental melodrama, according to Akiko Horiguchi, no one was more popular than Hiroshi Katsuyama (勝山ひろし). [Horiuchi, Akiko (nihongo2|堀内あき子), ed. (2003) nihongo3|"A Maiden's Romance Handbook"|乙女のロマンス手帳|Otome no romansu techō, p. 36. Tokyo: Kawade Shobō Shinsha (nihongo2|河出書房新社). ISBN 4-309-72732-8] But in an age when print media of all kinds were becoming increasingly visual, there was plenty of work to go around. [Yonezawa, Yoshihiro (nihongo2|米澤嘉博), ed. (1991) nihongo3|"A Children's History of Showa-Era Japan: The World of Shōjo Manga I, 1945-1962"|子供の昭和史──少女マンガの世界 I 昭和20年〜37年|Kodomo no Shōwa-shi: Shōjo manga no sekai I, Shōwa 20 nen - 37 nen, p. 36. Bessatsu Taiyō (nihongo2|別冊太陽) series, Tokyo: Heibonsha (nihongo2|平凡社) ISBN 978-4582942392.]
Children's books and infant merchandise
In 1955, Matsumoto abandoned manga altogether. Although he continued to do illustration work in a variety of styles, his focus shifted to the kind of hyper-stylized, wryly adorable character epitomized by the later Kurumi-chan. His target audience accordingly shifted from preteen and low-teen girls to toddlers and young mothers. In addition to illustrating new and original children's books, Matsumoto illustrated numerous classics, including "
Little Red Riding Hood" (1955), Andrew Lang's " Blue Fairy Book" (1959, translated by Yasunari Kawabata), and various other collections of classic Japanese and European fairy tales. [Hiramatsu, Yoshiyuki (nihongo2|平松義行), ed. (1985, revised 1996) nihongo3|"In Pursuit of the Cheerful Dreams of Girls: The World of Katsuji Matsumoto"|少女の明るい夢を追求ーー松本かつぢの世界|Shōjo no akarui yume o tsuikyū--Matsumoto Katsuji no sekai, pp. 81−89. Tokyo: Sanrio.]
In 1960, Matsumoto founded Katsu Productions (nihongo2|克プロダクション), which specialized in illustrations for infants and toddlers and designing various infant merchandise. This merchandise was spectacularly popular. Amateur manga scholar and blogger "lacopen" commented that "When I was a child, [Matsumoto's baby] goods were all the rage, so much so that it is no exaggeration to say they were everywhere." [ [http://lacopen.cocolog-nifty.com/blog/2006/05/post_bdd0.html lacopen blog βversion] ] His designs for the infant merchandise company known originally as "Sanshin. Inc." were perhaps the mostly widely consumed and recognized, and it has been suggested that the company changed its name to Combi [Combi Corporation (2004) [http://www.combi.co.jp/en/company/history_e.htm Corporate History] Retrieved on August 26, 2008] (nihongo2|コンビ, which comes from the English "combination" and is used in Japanese to mean "duo") in response to the popularity of the infant duo, "Haamu" (nihongo2|ハーム) and "Monii" (nihongo2|モニー), created by Matsumoto and featured on a wide array of the company's products. [Uchida, Shizue (nihongo2|内田静枝), ed. (2006) nihongo3|"Katsuji Matsumoto: The Illustrator Who Created the Showa Era's 'Cute!'"|松本かつぢ----昭和の可愛い!をつくったイラストレーター|Matsumoto Katsuji--Shōwa no kawaii! o tsukutta irasutoreetaa, pp. 68-69. Kawade Shobō Shinsha. ISBN 4-309-72751-4]
Retirement and death
In 1971, now in his late 60s, Matsumoto built an atelier, nihongo3|"Young Bamboo Shoot Studio"|稚筍房|"Chijunbō" in Kamishiraiwa (nihongo2|上白岩on the
Izu Peninsula, where he turned his creative talents from the modern and cosmopolitan to the traditional and provincial. Using the bamboo that was so plentiful in the area, he designed a variety of toys and objects that could easily be reproduced by the local farmers to sell as souvenirs. For this work, Matsumoto was given a commendation by the Shizuoka Prefectural government. [Uchida, Shizue (nihongo2|内田静枝), ed. (2006) nihongo3|"Katsuji Matsumoto: The Illustrator Who Created the Showa Era's 'Cute!'"|松本かつぢ----昭和の可愛い!をつくったイラストレーター|Matsumoto Katsuji--Shōwa no kawaii! o tsukutta irasutoreetaa, p. 120. Tokyo: Kawade Shobō Shinsha. ISBN 4-309-72751-4] Although these works seem strikingly at odds with Matsumoto's cosmopolitan image, he in fact had always had an eye for the traditional, and was particularly fond of collecting carefully selected Japanese and Korean pottery and furniture. Modern or traditional, Western or Eastern, the common thread that runs through Matsumoto's aesthetic sense, and his work, is an appreciation of that which is refined, simple, elegant, and unpretentious. [Uchida, Shizue (nihongo2|内田静枝), ed. (2006) nihongo3|"Katsuji Matsumoto: The Illustrator Who Created the Showa Era's 'Cute!'"|松本かつぢ----昭和の可愛い!をつくったイラストレーター|Matsumoto Katsuji--Shōwa no kawaii! o tsukutta irasutoreetaa, pp. 74-75. Kawade Shobō Shinsha. ISBN 4-309-72751-4] [ [http://katsudi.com/katsudiinfo3.html nihongo3|The Objects Katsuji Loved|かつぢの愛したものたち|Katsuji no ai shita monotachi] ]
In 1986, Matsumoto suffered the last of a series of strokes, and was hospitalized, never to fully regain consciousness again. The stylish Matsumoto had been famously fastidious throughout his life, and his daughter, Meiko, has written that she was startled to notice that on his hospital bed, where Matsumoto lay unconscious and barely responsive, he had been using his remaining good hand to remove the pills that had formed on the old hospital blanket. Furthermore, although doctors said he had lost his sight, Matsumoto would open his eyes, and, as if looking in a mirror, would straighten the hairs of his mustache with his fingers as he had habitually done for years. [ [http://kurumifriend.blog122.fc2.com/blog-entry-32.html Matsumoto, Meiko (松本明子) (2008) nihongo3|"Kurumi-chan Diary: Father's Death"|クルミちゃん日記〜父の死|Kurumi-chan nikki: Chichi no shi June 16.] ] Matsumoto passed away at the age of 81. His cremated remains are interred in the Fuji Cemetery in
Gotemba, Shizuoka, at the foot of Mount Fuji.
Matsumoto's children, in addition to Ki Nimori, are, in order of birth: Ikki Matsumoto (nihongo2|松本一騎, born 1935, currently living in the U.S.A.); Rumi O'Brien (nihongo2|オブライエン瑠美, born 1937, also living in the U.S.A.); Motoi Matsumoto (nihongo2|松本基, born 1939); Ken Matsumoto (nihongo2|松本賢, born 1941, deceased); Meiko Matsumoto (nihongo2|松本明子, born 1943); and Michie Utsuhara (nihongo2|宇津原充地栄, born 1945). Two of the first successful female
shōjo mangaartists of the postwar period, Toshiko Uedaand Setsuko Tamura, were his apprentices. Michie, Matsumoto's youngest child, along with several of her siblings and Matsumoto's grandchildren, manages the Gallery Katsuji Matsumoto (nihongo2|ギャラリーまつもとかつぢ, soon to be renamed the Katsuji Matsumoto Archives (nihongo2|松本かつぢ資料館), the [http://katsudi.com/katsudiinfo1.html official Katsuji Matsumoto website] and its [http://kurumifriend.ocnk.net/ on-line shop] , and also writes " [http://kurumifriend.blog122.fc2.com/ nihongo3|"Kurumi-chan Diary"|クルミちゃん日記|Kurumi-chan nikki] . The gallery is located at 4-14-18 Tamagawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 158-0094.
*Shimonaka, Kunihiko (下中邦彦), ed. (1979) nihongo3|"Complete Collection of Memorable Book Illustrations, Volume 4: Prewar Showa Period Boys' and Girls' Works"|名作挿絵全集第四巻〜昭和戦前少年少女篇|Meisaku sashie zenshū dai yon kan: Shōwa senzen shōnen shōjo hen, Tokyo: Heibonsha (nihongo2|平凡社).
* [http://katsudi.com/katsudiinfo1.html Matsumoto Katsuji no Sekai (松本かつぢの世界, "Katsuji Matsumoto's World"--Official web site maintained by the Matsumoto estate)]
*Thorn, Matt (2006) " [http://matt-thorn.com/shoujo_manga/prewar_shoujo/index.html Pre-World War II Shōjo Manga and Illustrations] " matt-thorn.com
NAME = Matsumoto, Katsuji
ALTERNATIVE NAMES = 松本かつぢ (Japanese)
SHORT DESCRIPTION = illustrator, manga artist
DATE OF BIRTH =
25 July, 1904
PLACE OF BIRTH =
Kobe, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan
DATE OF DEATH =
13 May, 1986
PLACE OF DEATH =
Izu, Shizuoka, Japan
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