JEL classification codes


JEL classification codes

Articles in journals are usually classified according to the system used by the Journal of Economic Literature (JEL). The JEL is published quarterly by the American Economic Association and contains survey articles and information on recently published books and dissertations. There are 19 main categories, each of which have numerous subcategories and subsubcategories.

The primary codes are:
* - General economics and Teaching
* - Schools of economic thought and Methodology
* - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods
* - Microeconomics
* - Macroeconomics and Monetary economics
* - International Economics
* - Financial Economics
* - Public Economics
* - Health, Education, and Welfare
* - Labor and Demographic Economics
* - Law and Economics
* - Industrial organization
* - Business administration and Business economics; Marketing; Accounting
* - Economic history
* - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth
* - Economic systems
* - Agricultural and Natural resource economics; Environmental and Ecological economics
* - Urban, Rural, and Regional economics
* - Other Special Topics

The full list is available at http://www.aeaweb.org/journal/jel_class_system.html

General Economics and Teaching JEL: A Subcategories

- General Economics::JEL: A10 - General::JEL: A11 - Role of Economics; Role of Economists; Market for Economists:: - Relation of Economics to Other Disciplines:: - Relation of Economics to Social Values::JEL: A14 - Sociology of Economics::JEL: A19 - Other - Economics Education and Teaching of Economics::JEL: A20 - General::JEL: A21 - Pre-college::JEL: A22 - Undergraduate::JEL: A23 - Graduate::JEL: A29 - OtherJEL: A3 - Multisubject Collective Works::JEL: A30 - General::JEL: A31 - Multisubject Collected Writings of Individuals::JEL: A32 - Multisubject Volumes::JEL: A39 - Other

chools of economic thought and methodology JEL: B Subcategories

JEL: B0 - General::JEL: B00 - General

- History of Economic Thought through 1925::JEL: B10 - General:: - Preclassical:: - Classical::JEL: B13 - Neoclassical through 1925::JEL: B14 - Socialist; Marxist::JEL: B15 - Historical; Institutional::JEL: B16 - History of Economic Thought: Quantitative and Mathematical ::JEL: B19 - Other

- History of Economic Thought since 1925::JEL: B20 - General::JEL: B21 - Microeconomics::JEL: B22 - Macroeconomics::JEL: B23 - History of Economic Thought: Econometrics; Quantitative & Mathematical Studies ::JEL: B24 - Socialist; Marxist; Sraffian::JEL: B25 - Historical; Institutional; Evolutionary; Austrian::JEL: B29 - Other

JEL: B3 - History of Thought: Individuals::JEL: B30 - General::JEL: B31 - Individuals::JEL: B32 - Obituaries

- Economic methodology::JEL: B40 - General::JEL: B41 - Economic methodology::JEL: B49 - Other

- Current Heterodox Approaches::JEL: B50 - General::JEL: B51 - Socialist; Marxian; Sraffian::JEL: B52 - Institutional; Evolutionary::JEL: B53 - Austrian::JEL: B54 - Feminist Economics ::JEL: B59 - Other

Mathematical and quantitative methods JEL: C Subcategories

- General

::JEL: C00 - General::JEL: C01 - Econometrics ::JEL: C02 - Mathematical Methods

- Econometric and Statistical Methods: General

::JEL: C10 - General::JEL: C11 - Bayesian analysis:: - Hypothesis testing:: - Estimation::JEL: C14 - Semiparametric and nonparametric methods::JEL: C15 - Statistical Simulation methods:: - Statistical distributions::JEL: C16 - Specific Distributions ::JEL: C19 - Other

-

::JEL: C20 - General:: - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial models; Treatment effect models:: - Time-Series Models::JEL: C23 - Panel data::JEL: C34 - Truncated and censored models::JEL: C25 - Discrete regression; Qualitative choice models::JEL: C29 - Other

-

::JEL: C30 - General:: - Cross-Sectional Models; ; Spatial Models; Treatment effect models:: - Time-Series Models::JEL: C33 - Models with Panel data::JEL: C34 - Truncated and censored models::JEL: C35 - Discrete regression and Qualitative choice models::JEL: C39 - Other

- Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics

::JEL: C40 - General::JEL: C41 - Duration analysis::JEL: C42 - Survey methods:: - Index numbers Aggregation::JEL: C44 - Statistical decision theory; Operations research::JEL: C45 - Neural Networks and Related Topics::JEL: C46 - Specific Distributions::JEL: C49 - Other

- Econometric Modeling

::JEL: C50 - General::JEL: C51 - Model construction and estimation::JEL: C52 - Model evaluation and testing::JEL: C53 - Forecasting and Other Model Applications::JEL: C59 - Other

- Mathematical Methods and Programming

::JEL: C60 - General::JEL: C61 - Optimization techniques; Programming models; Dynamic analysis ::JEL: C62 - Existence and stability conditions of equilibrium:: - Computational techniques::JEL: C65 - Miscellaneous Mathematical Tools::JEL: C67 - Input–output models::JEL: C68 - Computable General Equilibrium models::JEL: C69 - Other

- Game theory and Bargaining theory

::JEL: C70 - General:: - Cooperative games:: - Noncooperative games:: - Stochastic and Dynamic games; Evolutionary games; Repeated Games :: - Bargaining theory; Matching theory::JEL: C79 - Other

- Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs

::JEL: C80 - General::JEL: C81 - Methodology for collecting, estimating, and organizing microeconomic data::JEL: C82 - Methodology for collecting, estimating, and organizing macroeconomic data:: - Econometric software:: - Other Computer Software::JEL: C89 - Other

- Design of Experiments::JEL: C90 - General::JEL: C91 - Laboratory, Individual Behavior::JEL: C92 - Laboratory, Group Behavior::JEL: C93 - Field experiments::JEL: C99 - Other

Microeconomics JEL: D Subcategories

JEL: D0 - General

::JEL: D00 - General:: - Microeconomic Behavior: Underlying Principles:: - Institutions: Design, Formation, and Operations

- Household Behavior and Family Economics

::JEL: D10 - General:: - Consumer Economics: Theory::JEL: D12 - ::JEL: D13 - Household production and Intrahousehold allocation::JEL: D14 - Personal finance::JEL: D18 - Consumer protection::JEL: D19 - Other

- Production and Organizations

::JEL: D20 - General:: - Firm behavior::JEL: D23 - Organizational behavior; Transaction Costs; Property rights:: - Production; Capital and Total factor productivity; Capacity::JEL: D29 - Other

- Distribution

::JEL: D30 - General::JEL: D31 - , , and Their Distributions::JEL: D33 - ::JEL: D39 - Other

- Market structure and pricing

:: - General:: - Perfect competition:: - Monopoly:: - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection:: - Auctions:: - Rationing; Licensing:: - Value Theory::JEL: D49 - Other

- General equilibrium and Disequilibrium

::JEL: D50 - General::JEL: D51 - Exchange and Production Economies::JEL: D52 - Incomplete Markets::JEL: D57 - Input–Output Tables and Analysis::JEL: D58 - Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models::JEL: D59 - Other

- Welfare economics

::JEL: D60 - General:: - Allocative efficiency; Cost-benefit analysis:: - Externalities::JEL: D63 - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement::JEL: D64 - Altruism::JEL: D69 - Other

- Analysis of Collective Decision-Making

::JEL: D70 - General:: - Social choice; Clubs; Committees; Associations:: - Economic Models of Political Processes: Rent-Seeking, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior::JEL: D73 - Bureaucracy; Administrative Processes in Public Organizations; Corruption::JEL: D74 - Conflict; Conflict Resolution; Alliances::JEL: D78 - Positive Analysis of Policy-Making and Implementation::JEL: D79 - Other

- Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty

::JEL: D80 - General:: - Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty:: - Asymmetric and Private Information::JEL: D83 - Search; Learning; Information and Knowledge::JEL: D84 - Expectations; Speculation::JEL: D85 - Network Formation::JEL: D86 - Economics of contract law::JEL: D89 - Other

- Intertemporal choice and Growth

::JEL: D90 - General::JEL: D91 - Intertemporal Consumer Choice; Life cycle models and Saving::JEL: D92 - Intertemporal Firm Choice and Growth, Investment, or Financing::JEL: D99 - Other

Macroeconomics and monetary economics JEL: E Subcategories

JEL: E - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics

JEL: E0 - General

::JEL: E00 - General:: - Measurement and Data on National Income and Product Accounts and Wealth

JEL: E1 - General Aggregative Models

::JEL: E10 - General::JEL: E11 - Marxian; Sraffian; Institutional; Evolutionary:: - Keynes; Keynesian; Post-Keynesian::JEL: E13 - Neoclassical::JEL: E17 - and Simulation::JEL: E19 - Other

- Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment

::JEL: E20 - General::JEL: E21 - Consumption; Saving::JEL: E22 - Capital; Investment (including Inventories); Capacity::JEL: E23 - Production::JEL: E24 - Employment; Unemployment; Wages::JEL: E25 - Aggregate Factor Income Distribution::JEL: E26 - Informal economy; Underground Economy::JEL: E27 - Forecasting and Simulation::JEL: E29 - Other

JEL: E3 - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles

::JEL: E30 - General::JEL: E31 - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation:: - Business Fluctuations; Cycles::JEL: E37 - Forecasting and Simulation::JEL: E39 - Other

- Money and Interest Rates

::JEL: E40 - General::JEL: E41 - Demand for Money::JEL: E42 - Monetary Systems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System:: - Determination of Interest Rates; Term Structure of Interest Rates::JEL: E44 - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy::JEL: E47 - Forecasting and Simulation::JEL: E49 - Other

- Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit

::JEL: E50 - General::JEL: E51 - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers::JEL: E52 - Monetary Policy (Targets, Instruments, and Effects)::JEL: E58 - Central Banks and Their Policies::JEL: E59 - Other

- Macroeconomic Policy Formation, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, Macroeconomic Policy, and General Outlook

::JEL: E60 - General::JEL: E61 - Policy Objectives; Policy Designs and Consistency; Policy Coordination:: - Fiscal Policy; Public Expenditures, Investment, and Finance; Taxation::JEL: E63 - Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policy; Stabilization::JEL: E64 - Incomes Policy; Price Policy::JEL: E65 - Studies of Particular Policy Episodes::JEL: E66 - General Outlook and Conditions::JEL: E69 - Other

International economics JEL: F Subcategories

JEL: F - International Economics

JEL: F0 - General

::JEL: F00 - General::JEL: F01 - Global Outlook::JEL: F02 - International Economic Order; Noneconomic International Organizations •Economic Integration and Globalization: General

- Trade

::JEL: F10 - General::JEL: F11 - Neoclassical Models of Trade::JEL: F12 - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies::JEL: F13 - Commercial Policy; Protection; Promotion; Trade Negotiations; International Organizations::JEL: F14 - Country and Industry Studies of Trade::JEL: F15 - Economic Integration::JEL: F16 - Trade and Labor Market Interactions::JEL: F17 - Trade Forecasting and Simulation::JEL: F18 - Trade and Environment::JEL: F19 - Other

- International Factor Movements and International Business

::JEL: F20 - General::JEL: F21 - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements:: - International Migration:: - Multinational Firms; International Business::JEL: F29 - Other

- International Finance

::JEL: F30 - General::JEL: F31 - Foreign Exchange::JEL: F32 - Current Account Adjustment; Short-Term Capital Movements::JEL: F33 - International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions::JEL: F34 - International Lending and Debt Problems::JEL: F35 - Foreign aid::JEL: F36 - Financial Aspects of Economic Integration::JEL: F37 - International Finance Forecasting and Simulation::JEL: F39 - Other

- Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance

::JEL: F40 - General:: - Open economy macroeconomics::JEL: F42 - International Policy Coordination and Transmission::JEL: F43 - Economic Growth of Open Economies::JEL: F47 - Forecasting and Simulation::JEL: F49 - Other

Financial economics JEL: G Subcategories

JEL: G - Financial Economics

- General

::JEL: G00 - General

- General Financial Markets

::JEL: G10 - General::JEL: G11 - Portfolio choice; Investment decisions::JEL: G12 - Asset pricing::JEL: G13 - Contingent pricing; Futures Pricing::JEL: G14 - Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies::JEL: G15 - International financial markets::JEL: G18 - Government Policy and Regulation::JEL: G19 - Other

- Financial institutions and Services

::JEL: G20 - General:: - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Mortgages:: - Insurance; Insurance companies::JEL: G23 - Pension funds; Other Private Financial Institutions::JEL: G24 - Investment banking; Venture capital; Brokerage::JEL: G28 - Government Policy and Regulation::JEL: G29 - Other

- Corporate finance and Corporate governance

::JEL: G30 - General::JEL: G31 - Capital budgeting; Investment Policy::JEL: G32 - Financing Policy; Capital and Ownership Structure::JEL: G33 - Bankruptcy; Liquidation::JEL: G34 - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate governance::JEL: G35 - Payout Policy::JEL: G38 - Government Policy and Regulation::JEL: G39 - Other

Public economics JEL: H Subcategories

JEL: H - Public Economics

JEL: H0 - General

::JEL: H00 - General

JEL: H1 - Structure and Scope of Government

::JEL: H10 - General::JEL: H11 - Structure, Scope, and Performance of Government::JEL: H19 - Other

- Taxation, , and Revenue

::JEL: H20 - General::JEL: H21 - ; Optimal taxation::JEL: H22 - Incidence::JEL: H23 - Externalities; ; Environmental taxes and Subsidies:: - Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies:: - Business Taxes and Subsidies::JEL: H26 - Tax Evasion::JEL: H27 - Other Sources of Revenue::JEL: H29 - Other

JEL: H3 - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents

::JEL: H30 - General::JEL: H31 - Household::JEL: H32 - Firm::JEL: H39 - Other

JEL: H4 - Publicly provided goods

::JEL: H40 - General::JEL: H41 - Public goods::JEL: H42 - Publicly Provided Private Goods::JEL: H43 - Project evaluation; Social discount rate::JEL: H49 - Other

JEL: H5 - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies

::JEL: H50 - General::JEL: H51 - Government Expenditures and Health::JEL: H52 - Government Expenditures and Education::JEL: H53 - Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs::JEL: H54 - Infrastructures; Other Public Investment and Capital Stock::JEL: H55 - Social security and Public Pensions:: - National Security and War::JEL: H57 - Procurement::JEL: H59 - Other

JEL: H6 - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt

::JEL: H60 - General::JEL: H61 - Budget; Budget Systems::JEL: H62 - Deficit; Surplus::JEL: H63 - Debt; Debt Management::JEL: H69 - Other

JEL: H7 - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations

::JEL: H70 - General::JEL: H71 - State and Local Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue::JEL: H72 - State and Local Budget and Expenditures::JEL: H73 - Interjurisdictional Differentials and Their Effects::JEL: H74 - State and Local Borrowing::JEL: H77 - Intergovernmental Relations; Federalism::JEL: H79 - Other

JEL: H8 - Miscellaneous Issues

::JEL: H80 - General::JEL: H81 - Governmental Loans, Loan Guarantees, and Credits::JEL: H82 - Governmental Property::JEL: H83 - Public administration::JEL: H87 - International Fiscal Issues; International Public Goods::JEL: H89 - Other

Health, education, and welfare JEL: I Subcategories

JEL: I - Health, Education, and Welfare

JEL: I0 - General

::JEL: I00 - General

- Health

::JEL: I10 - General:: - Analysis of Health Care Markets::JEL: I12 - Health Production: Nutrition, Mortality, Morbidity, Substance Abuse and Addiction, Disability, and Economic Behavior::JEL: I18 - Government Policy; Regulation; Public health::JEL: I19 - Other

- Education

::JEL: I20 - General::JEL: I21 - Analysis of Education::JEL: I22 - Educational finance::JEL: I23 - Higher Education Research Institutions::JEL: I28 - Government Policy::JEL: I29 - Other

- Welfare and Poverty

::JEL: I30 - General::JEL: I31 - General Welfare; Basic needs; Living standards; Quality of life; Happiness:: - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty::JEL: I38 - Government Policy; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs ::JEL: I39 - Other

Labor and demographic economics JEL: J Subcategories

JEL: J - Labor and Demographic Economics

JEL: J0 - General

::JEL: J00 - General

- Demographic economics

::JEL: J10 - General::JEL: J11 - Demographic Trends and Forecasts::JEL: J12 - Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure::JEL: J13 - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth::JEL: J14 - Economics of the Elderly; Economics of the Handicapped::JEL: J15 - Economics of Minorities and Races; Non-labor Discrimination::JEL: J16 - Economics of gender; Non-labor Discrimination::JEL: J17 - Value of life; Foregone Income::JEL: J18 - Public Policy::JEL: J19 - Other

- Time Allocation, Work Behavior, and Employment Determination and Creation; Human capital

::JEL: J20 - General::JEL: J21 - Labor force and Employment, Size, and Structure::JEL: J22 - Time allocation and Labor supply::JEL: J23 - Employment Determination; Job creation; Demand for labor; Self-employment::JEL: J24 - Human capital; Skills; Occupational choice; Labor productivity::JEL: J26 - Retirement; Retirement policies::JEL: J28 - Safety; Accidents; Industrial Health; Job Satisfaction; Related Public Policy::JEL: J29 - Other

- Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs

::JEL: J30 - General::JEL: J31 - Wage Level and Structure; Wage differentials by Skill, Training, Occupation, etc.::JEL: J32 - Nonwage labor costs and Benefits; Private pensions::JEL: J33 - Compensation Packages; Payment Methods::JEL: J38 - Public Policy::JEL: J39 - Other

- Particular Labor Markets

::JEL: J40 - General::JEL: J41 - Contracts: Specific Human Capital, Matching models, Efficiency wage Models, and Internal labor markets::JEL: J42 - Monopsony; Segmented Labor Markets::JEL: J43 - Agricultural Labor Markets::JEL: J44 - Professional Labor Markets and Occupations::JEL: J45 - Public Sector Labor Markets::JEL: J48 - Public Policy::JEL: J49 - Other

- Labor–Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining

::JEL: J50 - General::JEL: J51 - Trade unions: Objectives, Structure, and Effects::JEL: J52 - Dispute Resolution: Strikes, Arbitration, and Mediation; Collective bargaining::JEL: J53 - Labor–management relations; Industrial Jurisprudence::JEL: J54 - Producer cooperatives; Labor managed firms::JEL: J58 - Public Policy::JEL: J59 - Other

- Mobility, Unemployment, and Vacancies

::JEL: J60 - General::JEL: J61 - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers::JEL: J62 - Job, Occupational, and Intergenerational mobility::JEL: J63 - Turnover; Vacancies; Layoffs::JEL: J64 - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search::JEL: J65 - Unemployment insurance; Severance pay; Plant closings::JEL: J68 - Public Policy::JEL: J69 - Other

- Labor Discrimination

::JEL: J70 - General::JEL: J71 - Discrimination::JEL: J78 - Public Policy::JEL: J79 - Other

- Labor Standards: National and International

::JEL: J80 - General::JEL: J81 - Working conditions::JEL: J82 - Labor Force Composition::JEL: J83 - Workers' Rights::JEL: J88 - Public Policy::JEL: J89 - Other

Law and economics JEL: K Subcategories

JEL: K - Law and Economics

JEL: K0 - General

::JEL: K00 - General

JEL: K1 - Basic Areas of Law

::JEL: K10 - General::JEL: K11 - Property Law::JEL: K12 - Contract Law::JEL: K13 - Tort Law and Product Liability::JEL: K14 - Criminal Law::JEL: K19 - Other

- Regulation and Business Law

::JEL: K20 - General::JEL: K21 - Antitrust Law::JEL: K22 - Corporation and Securities Law::JEL: K23 - Regulated Industries and Administrative Law::JEL: K29 - Other

JEL: K3 - Other Substantive Areas of Law

::JEL: K30 - General::JEL: K31 - Labor Law::JEL: K32 - Environmental, Health, and Safety Law::JEL: K33 - International Law::JEL: K34 - Tax Law::JEL: K35 - Personal Bankruptcy Law::JEL: K39 - Other

JEL: K4 - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior

::JEL: K40 - General::JEL: K41 - Litigation Process::JEL: K42 - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law::JEL: K49 - Other

Industrial organization JEL: L Subcategories

JEL: L - Industrial Organization

JEL: L0 - General

::JEL: L00 - General

- Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance

::JEL: L10 - General::JEL: L11 - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms:: - Monopoly; Monopolization Strategies::JEL: L13 - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets::JEL: L14 - Transactional Relationships; Contracts and Reputation; Networks::JEL: L15 - Information and Product Quality; Standardization and Compatibility::JEL: L16 - Industrial Organization and Macroeconomics; Macroeconomic Industrial Structure; Industrial Price Indices::JEL: L19 - Other

JEL: L2 - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior

::JEL: L20 - General::JEL: L21 - Business Objectives of the Firm::JEL: L22 - Firm Organization and Market Structure: Markets vs. Hierarchies; Vertical integration; Conglomerates::JEL: L23 - Organization of Production::JEL: L24 - Contracting out; Joint ventures::JEL: L25 - Firm Performance: Size, Age, Profit, and Sales::JEL: L29 - Other

JEL: L3 - and

::JEL: L30 - General::JEL: L31 - Nonprofit Institutions; NGOs::JEL: L32 - Public enterprises::JEL: L33 - Comparison of Public and Private Enterprises; Privatization; Contracting out::JEL: L39 - Other

JEL: L4 - Issues and Policies

::JEL: L40 - General::JEL: L41 - Monopolization; Horizontal Anticompetitive Practices::JEL: L42 - Vertical Restraints; Resale Price Maintenance; Quantity Discounts::JEL: L43 - Legal Monopolies and Regulation or Deregulation::JEL: L44 - Antitrust Policy and Public Enterprise, Nonprofit Institutions, and Professional Organizations::JEL: L49 - Other

JEL: L5 - Regulation and

::JEL: L50 - General::JEL: L51 - Economics of Regulation::JEL: L52 - Industrial Policy; Sectoral Planning Methods::JEL: L53 - Government Promotion of Firms::JEL: L59 - Other

- Industry Studies: Manufacturing

::JEL: L60 - General::JEL: L61 - Metals and Metal Products; Cement; Glass; Ceramics::JEL: L62 - Automobiles; Other Transportation Equipment::JEL: L63 - Microelectronics; Computers; Communications Equipment::JEL: L64 - Other Machinery; Business Equipment; Armaments::JEL: L65 - Chemicals; Rubber; Drugs; Biotechnology::JEL: L66 - Food; Beverages; Cosmetics; Tobacco::JEL: L67 - Other Consumer Nondurables: Clothing, Textiles, Shoes, and Leather::JEL: L68 - Appliances; Other Consumer Durables::JEL: L69 - Other

JEL: L7 - Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction

::JEL: L70 - General::JEL: L71 - Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Hydrocarbon Fuels::JEL: L72 - Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Other Nonrenewable Resources::JEL: L73 - Forest Products: Lumber and Paper::JEL: L74 - Construction::JEL: L78 - Government Policy::JEL: L79 - Other

- Industry Studies: Services

::JEL: L80 - General::JEL: L81 - Retail and Wholesale Trade; Warehousing; e-Commerce::JEL: L82 - Entertainment; Media (Performing Arts, Visual Arts, Broadcasting, Publishing, etc.)::JEL: L83 - Sports; Gambling; Recreation; Tourism::JEL: L84 - Personal, Professional, and Business Services::JEL: L85 - Real Estate Services::JEL: L86 - Information and Internet Services; Computer Software::JEL: L87 - Postal and Delivery Services::JEL: L88 - Government Policy::JEL: L89 - Other

- Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities

::JEL: L90 - General::JEL: L91 - Transportation: General::JEL: L92 - Railroads and Other Surface Transportation: Autos, Buses, Trucks, and Water Carriers; Ports::JEL: L93 - Air Transportation::JEL: L94 - Electric Utilities::JEL: L95 - Gas Utilities; Pipelines; Water Utilities::JEL: L96 - Telecommunications::JEL: L97 - Utilities: General::JEL: L98 - Government Policy::JEL: L99 - Other

Business administration and business economics; marketing; accounting JEL: M Subcategories

JEL: M - Business administration and business economics; marketing; accounting

JEL: M0 - General

::JEL: M00 - General

- Business Administration

::JEL: M10 - General::JEL: M11 - Production Management::JEL: M12 - Personnel Management::JEL: M13 - Entrepreneurship::JEL: M14 - Corporate culture; Social Responsibility::JEL: M19 - Other

JEL: M2 - Business Economics

::JEL: M20 - General::JEL: M21 - Business economics::JEL: M29 - Other

- Marketing and Advertising

::JEL: M30 - General::JEL: M31 - Marketing::JEL: M37 - Advertising::JEL: M39 - Other

- Accounting and Auditing

::JEL: M40 - General::JEL: M41 - Accounting scholarship::JEL: M42 - Auditing::JEL: M49 - Other

JEL: M5 - Personnel economics

::JEL: M50 - General::JEL: M51 - Firm Employment Decisions; Promotions (hiring, firing, turnover, part-time, temporary workers, seniority issues)::JEL: M52 - Compensation and Compensation Methods and Their Effects (stock options, fringe benefits, incentives, family support programs, seniority issues)::JEL: M53 - Training::JEL: M54 - Labor Management (team formation, worker empowerment, job design, tasks and authority, job satisfaction)::JEL: M55 - Labor Contracting Devices: Outsourcing; Franchising; Other::JEL: M59 - Other

Economic history JEL: N Subcategories

JEL: N - Economic History

JEL: N0 - General

::JEL: N00 - General::JEL: N01 - Development of the Discipline: Historiographical; Sources and Methods

JEL: N1 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Growth and Fluctuations

::JEL: N10 - General, International, or Comparative::JEL: N11 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913::JEL: N12 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–::JEL: N13 - Europe: Pre-1913::JEL: N14 - Europe: 1913–::JEL: N15 - Asia including Middle East::JEL: N16 - Latin America; Caribbean::JEL: N17 - Africa; Oceania

JEL: N2 - Financial Markets and Institutions

::JEL: N20 - General, International, or Comparative::JEL: N21 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913::JEL: N22 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–::JEL: N23 - Europe: Pre-1913::JEL: N24 - Europe: 1913–::JEL: N25 - Asia including Middle East::JEL: N26 - Latin America; Caribbean::JEL: N27 - Africa; Oceania

JEL: N3 - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Income, and Wealth

::JEL: N30 - General, International, or Comparative::JEL: N31 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913::JEL: N32 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–::JEL: N33 - Europe: Pre-1913::JEL: N34 - Europe: 1913–::JEL: N35 - Asia including Middle East::JEL: N36 - Latin America; Caribbean::JEL: N37 - Africa; Oceania

JEL: N4 - Government, War, Law, and Regulation

::JEL: N40 - General, International, or Comparative::JEL: N41 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913::JEL: N42 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–::JEL: N43 - Europe: Pre-1913::JEL: N44 - Europe: 1913–::JEL: N45 - Asia including Middle East::JEL: N46 - Latin America; Caribbean::JEL: N47 - Africa; Oceania

JEL: N5 - Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries

::JEL: N50 - General, International, or Comparative::JEL: N51 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913::JEL: N52 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–::JEL: N53 - Europe: Pre-1913::JEL: N54 - Europe: 1913–::JEL: N55 - Asia including Middle East::JEL: N56 - Latin America; Caribbean::JEL: N57 - Africa; Oceania

JEL: N6 - Manufacturing and Construction

::JEL: N60 - General, International, or Comparative::JEL: N61 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913::JEL: N62 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–::JEL: N63 - Europe: Pre-1913::JEL: N64 - Europe: 1913–::JEL: N65 - Asia including Middle East::JEL: N66 - Latin America; Caribbean::JEL: N67 - Africa; Oceania

JEL: N7 - Transport, International and Domestic Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services

::JEL: N70 - General, International, or Comparative::JEL: N71 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913::JEL: N72 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–::JEL: N73 - Europe: Pre-1913::JEL: N74 - Europe: 1913–::JEL: N75 - Asia including Middle East::JEL: N76 - Latin America; Caribbean::JEL: N77 - Africa; Oceania

JEL: N8 - Micro-Business History

::JEL: N80 - General, International, or Comparative::JEL: N81 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913::JEL: N82 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–::JEL: N83 - Europe: Pre-1913::JEL: N84 - Europe: 1913–::JEL: N85 - Asia including Middle East::JEL: N86 - Latin America; Caribbean::JEL: N87 - Africa; Oceania

JEL: N9 - Regional and Urban History

::JEL: N90 - General, International, or Comparative::JEL: N91 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913::JEL: N92 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–::JEL: N93 - Europe: Pre-1913::JEL: N94 - Europe: 1913–::JEL: N95 - Asia including Middle East::JEL: N96 - Latin America; Caribbean::JEL: N97 - Africa; Oceania

Economic development, technological change, and growth JEL: O Subcategories

JEL: O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth

- Economic development

::JEL: O10 - General::JEL: O11 - Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development::JEL: O12 - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development::JEL: O13 - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Energy; Environment; Other Primary Products::JEL: O14 - Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology::JEL: O15 - Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration::JEL: O16 - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment:: - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements: Legal, Social, Economic, and Political::JEL: O18 - Regional, Urban, and Rural Analyses::JEL: O19 - International Linkages to Development; Role of International Organizations

JEL: O2 - Development Planning and Policy

::JEL: O20 - General::JEL: O21 - Planning Models; Planning Policy::JEL: O22 - Project Analysis::JEL: O23 - Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development::JEL: O24 - Trade Policy; Factor Movement Policy; Foreign Exchange Policy::JEL: O29 - Other

- Technological Change; Research and Development

::JEL: O30 - General::JEL: O31 - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives::JEL: O32 - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D::JEL: O33 - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes:: - Intellectual Property Rights: National and International Issues::JEL: O38 - Government Policy::JEL: O39 - Other

- Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity

::JEL: O40 - General::JEL: O41 - One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models::JEL: O42 - Monetary Growth Models::JEL: O47 - Measurement of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity::JEL: O49 - Other

- Economywide Country Studies

::JEL: O50 - General::JEL: O51 - U.S.; Canada::JEL: O52 - Europe::JEL: O53 - Asia including Middle East::JEL: O54 - Latin America; Caribbean::JEL: O55 - Africa::JEL: O56 - Oceania::JEL: O57 - Comparative Studies of Countries

Economic systems JEL: P Subcategories

JEL: P - Economic Systems

JEL: P0 - General

::JEL: P00 - General

- Capitalist Systems::JEL: P10 - General:: - Planning, Coordination, and Reform::JEL: P12 - Capitalist Enterprises::JEL: P13 - Cooperative Enterprises::JEL: P14 - Property Rights::JEL: P16 - Political Economy::JEL: P17 - Performance and Prospects::JEL: P19 - Other

- Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies::JEL: P20 - General::JEL: P21 - Planning, Coordination, and Reform::JEL: P22 - Prices::JEL: P23 - Factor and Product Markets; Industry Studies; Population::JEL: P24 - National Income, Product, and Expenditure; Money; Inflation::JEL: P25 - Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics; Housing; Transportation::JEL: P26 - Political Economy; Property Rights::JEL: P27 - Performance and Prospects::JEL: P28 - Natural Resources; Energy; Environment::JEL: P29 - Other

- Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions

::JEL: P30 - General::JEL: P31 - Socialist Enterprises and Their Transitions::JEL: P32 - Collectives; Communes; Agriculture::JEL: P33 - International Trade, Finance, Investment, and Aid::JEL: P34 - Financial Economics::JEL: P35 - Public Economics::JEL: P36 - Consumer Economics; Health, Education, Welfare, and Poverty::JEL: P37 - Legal Institutions; Illegal Behavior::JEL: P39 - Other

JEL: P4 - Other Economic Systems

::JEL: P40 - General::JEL: P41 - Planning, Coordination, and Reform::JEL: P42 - Productive Enterprises; Factor and Product Markets; Prices; Population::JEL: P43 - Public Economics; Financial Economics::JEL: P44 - National Income, Product, and Expenditure; Money; Inflation::JEL: P45 - International Trade, Finance, Investment, and Aid::JEL: P46 - Consumer Economics; Welfare and Poverty::JEL: P47 - Performance and Prospects::JEL: P48 - Political Economy •Legal Institutions; Property Rights::JEL: P49 - Other

JEL: P5 - Comparative Economic Systems

::JEL: P50 - General::JEL: P51 - Comparative Analysis of Economic Systems::JEL: P52 - Comparative Studies of Particular Economies::JEL: P59 - Other

Agricultural and natural resource economics; environmental and ecological economics JEL: Q Subcategories

JEL: Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics

JEL: Q0 - General

::JEL: Q00 - General::JEL: Q01 - Sustainable development

- Agriculture

::JEL: Q10 - General::JEL: Q11 - Aggregate Supply and Demand Analysis; Prices::JEL: Q12 - Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets::JEL: Q13 - Agricultural markets and Marketing; Cooperatives; Agribusiness::JEL: Q14 - Agricultural finance::JEL: Q15 - Land Ownership and Tenure; Land reform; Land use; Irrigation::JEL: Q16 - R&D; Agricultural technology; Agricultural Extension Services::JEL: Q17 - Agriculture in International Trade::JEL: Q18 - Agricultural policy; Food policy::JEL: Q19 - Other

- Renewable Resources and Conservation

::JEL: Q20 - General::JEL: Q21 - Demand and Supply::JEL: Q22 - Fishery; Aquaculture::JEL: Q23 - Forestry::JEL: Q24 - Land::JEL: Q25 - Water::JEL: Q26 - Recreational Aspects of Natural Resources::JEL: Q28 - Government Policy::JEL: Q29 - Other

- Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation

::JEL: Q30 - General::JEL: Q31 - Demand and Supply::JEL: Q32 - Exhaustible Resources and Economic Development::JEL: Q34 - Natural Resources and Domestic and International Conflicts::JEL: Q33 - Resource Booms::JEL: Q38 - Government Policy::JEL: Q39 - Other

- Energy

::JEL: Q40 - General::JEL: Q41 - Demand and Supply::JEL: Q42 - Alternative Energy Sources::JEL: Q43 - Energy and the Macroeconomy::JEL: Q48 - Government Policy::JEL: Q49 - Other

- Environmental economics

::JEL: Q50 - General::JEL: Q51 - Valuation of Environmental Effects::JEL: Q52 - Pollution Control Costs; Distributional Effects; Employment Effects::JEL: Q53 - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste • Recycling::JEL: Q54 - Climate; Natural Disasters::JEL: Q55 - Technological Innovation::JEL: Q56 - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental accounting::JEL: Q57 - Ecological economics: Ecosystem Services; Biodiversity Conservation; Bioeconomics::JEL: Q58 - Government Policy::JEL: Q59 - Other

Urban, rural, and regional economics JEL: R Subcategories

JEL: R - Urban, rural, and regional economics

JEL: R0 - General

::JEL: R00 - General

- General Regional economics

::JEL: R10 - General::JEL: R11 - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, and Changes::JEL: R12 - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade::JEL: R13 - General Equilibrium and Welfare Economic Analysis of Regional Economies::JEL: R14 - Land Use Patterns::JEL: R15 - Econometric and Input–Output Models; Other Models::JEL: R19 - Other

JEL: R2 - Household Analysis

::JEL: R20 - General::JEL: R21 - Housing Demand::JEL: R22 - Other Demand::JEL: R23 - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population::JEL: R29 - Other

JEL: R3 - Production Analysis and Firm Location

::JEL: R30 - General::JEL: R31 - Housing Supply and Markets::JEL: R32 - Other Production and Pricing Analysis::JEL: R33 - Nonagricultural and Nonresidential Real Estate Markets::JEL: R34 - Input Demand Analysis::JEL: R38 - Government Policies; Regulatory Policies::JEL: R39 - Other

- Transportation Systems

::JEL: R40 - General::JEL: R41 - Transportation: Demand; Supply; Congestion; Safety and Accidents::JEL: R42 - Government and Private Investment Analysis::JEL: R48 - Government Pricing; Regulatory Policies::JEL: R49 - Other

JEL: R5 - Regional Government Analysis

::JEL: R50 - General::JEL: R51 - Finance in Urban and Rural Economies::JEL: R52 - Land Use and Other Regulations::JEL: R53 - Public Facility Location Analysis; Public Investment and Capital Stock::JEL: R58 - Regional Development Policy::JEL: R59 - Other

Other special topics (economics) JEL: Z Subcategories

JEL: Z - Other Special Topics

JEL: Z0 - General

::JEL: Z00 - General

- Cultural Economics; Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology::JEL: Z10 - General::JEL: Z11 - Economics of the Arts and Literature::JEL: Z12 - Religion::JEL: Z13 - Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology ::JEL: Z19 - Other


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