- Syrinx (biology)
* 2 Tympanum * 3 first group of syringeal rings * 4 Pessulus * 5 Membrana tympaniformis lateralis * 6 Membrana tympaniformis medialis * 7 second group of syringeal rings * 8 main
bronchus* 9 bronchial cartilage] Syrinx (Greek for pan pipes) is the name for the vocal organ of birds. Located at the base of a bird's trachea, it produces sounds without the vocal cordsof mammals.cite book| last =Terres| first =J. K.| authorlink =John Kenneth Terres| title =The Audubon Society Encyclopedia of North American Birds| publisher =Knopf| date =1980| location =New York, NY| pages = 995| isbn = 0394466519 ] The sound is produced by vibrationsof some or all of the Membrana tympaniformis (the walls of the syrinx) and the Pessulus caused by air flowing through the syrinx. This sets up a self-oscillating system which modulates the airflow creating the sound. The muscles modulate the sound shape by changing the tension of the membranes and the bronchial openings. [ [http://jeb.biologists.org/cgi/content/full/205/1/25 Direct observation of syringeal muscle function in songbirds and a parrot] Ole Næsbye Larsen and Franz Goller, The Journal of Experimental Biology 205, 25-35 (2002)] The syrinx enables some species of birds (such as parrots, parakeets, and mynas) to mimic human speech. Unlike the larynxof mammals, the syrinx is located where the trachea forks into the lungs, and because of this some songbirdscan produce more than one sound at a time.
Lateralization of bird song
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