- Psychological adaptation
A psychological adaptation, also called an
Evolved psychological mechanismor EPM, is an aspect of a human or other animal's psychology that is the result of evolutionary pressures. It could serve a specific purpose, have served a purpose in the past (see vestigiality), or be a side-effect of another EPM (see spandrel_(biology)). Evolutionary psychologyproposes that the human psychology mostly comprises psychological adaptations, in opposition to blank slate models of human psychology such as the standard social science model, [http://salmon.psy.plym.ac.uk/Year1/psy150/sociobiology.htm#debate Dead link|date=June 2008] popular throughout most of the twentieth century.
David Buss, lays out six properties of evolved psychological mechanisms (EPM's):
# An EPM exists in the form that it does because it solved a specific problem of survival or
reproductionrecurrently over evolutionary history.
# An EPM is designed to take in only a narrow slice of information
# The input of an EPM tells an organism the particular adaptive problem it is facing
# The input of an EPM is transformed through decision rules into output
# The output of an EPM can be
physiologicalactivity, information to other psychological mechanisms, or manifest behaviors
# The output of an EPM is directed toward the solution to a specific adaptive problem
Further important properties include the following:
* EPM's provide nonarbitrary criteria, (i.e. adaptive function) for "carving the mind at its joints," (i.e. evolved structure).
* EPM's tend to aid in solving specific adaptive problems, (e.g. food selection, mate selection, intrasexual competition, etc.)
* EPM's are believed to be numerous, which contributes to human behavioral flexibility. An analogy would be like a carpenter who, instead of having one tool that does everything, has many tools, each with a specific function for a specific task, (e.g. a hammer for pounding nails, a saw for cutting wood, etc.)
* Some EPM's are "domain-specific", (i.e. evolved to solve specific, recurrent adaptive problems), while others are "domain-general", (i.e. evolved to aid the individual in dealing with novelty in the environment).
Dual inheritance theory
Evolutionary developmental psychology
Human behavioral ecology
Modularity of mind
* Barrett, H. C., and Kurzban, R. (2006). Modularity in cognition: Framing the debate. "
Psychological Review, 113," 628-647. [http://www.anthro.ucla.edu/faculty/barrett/Barrett%20Kurzban%202006.pdf Full text]
* Boyer, P. & Barrett, H. C. (2005). Domain specificity and intuitive ontology. In Buss, D.M. (ed.). " [http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0471264032.html Handbook of evolutionary psychology.] " (pp. 96-118). Wiley. [http://www.anthro.ucla.edu/faculty/barrett/BoyerBarrett.pdf Full text]
* Buss, D.M. (2004). [http://www.ablongman.com/catalog/academic/product/0,1144,0205370713-TOC,00.html "Evolutionary Psychology: The New Science of the Mind".] Boston, MA. Pearson Education, Inc.
* Chiappe, D., & MacDonald, K. B. (2005). The Evolution of Domain-General Mechanisms in Intelligence and Learning. "Journal of General Psychology, 132(1)," 5–40. [http://www.csulb.edu/~kmacd/iq.pdf Full text]
* Henrich, J. & Boyd, R. (2002). Culture and Cognition: Why Cultural Evolution Does Not Require Replication of Representations. "Culture and Cognition, 2:" 87–112. [http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/anthro/faculty/boyd/Culture&CognitionByHenrich&Boyd.pdf Full text]
* Krill, A. L., Platek, S. M., Goetz, A. T., & Shackelford, T. K. (2007). Where evolutionary psychology meets cognitive neuroscience: A précis to evolutionary cognitive neuroscience. "Evolutionary Psychology, 5," 232-256. [http://www.toddkshackelford.com/downloads/Krill-et-al-EP-2007.pdf Full text]
* Tooby, J., Cosmides, L. & Barrett, H. C. (2005). Resolving the debate on innate ideas: Learnability constraints and the evolved interpenetration of motivational and conceptual functions. In Carruthers, P., Laurence, S. & Stich, S. (Eds.), " [http://www.oup.com/us/catalog/general/subject/Philosophy/Mind/?view=usa&ci=0195179994 The Innate Mind: Structure and Content.] " NY: Oxford University Press. [http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/research/cep/papers/innate05.pdf Full text]
url=http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/research/cep/primer.html|title=Evolutionary Psychology Primer by Leda Cosmides and John Tooby|publisher=www.psych.ucsb.edu|accessdate=2008-06-17|last=Leda Cosmides & |first=John Tooby
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Psychological abuse — Classification and external resources ICD 10 T74.3 ICD 9 995.82 Psychological abuse, also … Wikipedia
Psychological resilience — Resilience in psychology is the positive capacity of people to cope with stress and catastrophe. It is also used to indicate a characteristic of resistance to future negative events. In this sense resilience corresponds to cumulative protective… … Wikipedia
Adaptation. — Infobox Film name = Adaptation. caption = director = Spike Jonze producer = Jonathan Demme Vincent Landay Edward Saxon writer = Susan Orlean ( The Orchid Thief ) Charlie Kaufman (screenplay) starring = Nicolas Cage Meryl Streep Chris Cooper Cara… … Wikipedia
Adaptation (film) — Adaptation … Wikipedia
Human adaptation to space — Human physiological adaptation to space is a challenge faced in developing human spaceflight. The turn of the 21st century saw increased research into how humans can survive and work in space for long periods.Importance of subjectThe sum of… … Wikipedia
Evolutionary psychology — (EP) attempts to explain mental and psychological traits such as memory, perception, or language as adaptations, that is, as the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection. Adaptationist thinking about physiological mechanisms,… … Wikipedia
List of psychology topics — This page aims to list all topics related to psychology. This is so that those interested in the subject can monitor changes to the pages by clicking on Related changes in the sidebar. It is also to see the gaps in Wikipedia s coverage of the… … Wikipedia
The Adapted Mind — The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture is an edited volume, first published in 1992 by Oxford University Press, edited by Jerome Barkow, Leda Cosmides and John Tooby. It is widely considered the foundational text… … Wikipedia
Acculturation — is the exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into continuous firsthand contact; the original cultural patterns of either or both groups may be altered, but the groups remain distinct. (Kottak 2007)However, anthropologist… … Wikipedia
Sociobiological theories of rape — are theories that explore to what degree, if any, evolutionary adaptations influence the psychology of rapists. Such theories are highly controversial, as traditional theories typically do not consider rape to be a behavioral adaptation. Some… … Wikipedia