Shumard Oak


Shumard Oak

Taxobox
name = Shumard l Oak
status = secure


image_width = 240px
image_caption = Leaves of a Shumard Oak in Austin, Texas
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Rosopsida
ordo = Fagales
familia = Fagaceae
genus = "Quercus"
sectio = "Lobatae"
species = "Q. shumardii"
binomial = "Quercus shumardii"
binomial_authority = Buckland

The Shumard Oak, "Quercus shumardii" (also known as Spotted Oak, Schneck Oak, Shumard Red Oak, and Swamp Red Oak), is one of the largest of the oak species in the red oak group ("Quercus" section "Lobatae"). It is closely related to Buckley Oak ("Quercus buckleyi"), Nuttall Oak ("Quercus texana"), and Chisos Red Oak ("Quercus gravesii").

Shumard Oak is native to the Atlantic Coastal Plain primarily from North Carolina to northern Florida and west to central Texas; it is also found north in the Mississippi River Valley to central Oklahoma, eastern Kansas, Missouri, southern Illinois, Indiana, western and southern Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. It is found locally north to southern Michigan, southern Pennsylvania, Maryland, and the extreme north of Ontario, Canada.

Mature Shumard Oak typically reach heights of 25–35 meters, trunk diameter is typically 60–100 cm, and crown width typically reaches 12–18 meters in width. Typical size varies according to region, with larger specimens occurring in the southern portions of its native range in the United States. Record Shumard Oaks have been measured at up to 42 meters tall, with crowns up to 27.5 meters in width. Young specimens generally exhibit conic or ovate crowns, with the upper crown filling in as the tree reaches maturity. Trunks are relatively straight and vertical.

The young bark of the Shumard Oak is light grey, very smooth, and very reflective. Shumard Oak bark darkens and develops ridges and furrows as it ages. There are occasionally white splotches on the bark.

Shumard Oak twigs terminate in a cluster of buds. The buds are lighter in color than the olive-green twigs. The young twig is highly reflective.

The leaves are arranged alternately and are broadly obovate with 5–9 lobes, each of which are terminated by bristle tipped teeth. The leaves mature to between 10–21 cm in length. The surfaces are glabrous, except for the tufted vein axils. They are dark green on the top, while the bottom is a slightly lighter shade of green. The leaves turn brown to red in the fall, and sometime have hues of yellow mixed in. Fall colors are relatively late; specimens in central Texas may be at their most red in early December, while Florida specimens may not color substantially until February.

Shumard Oak bears relatively large acorns, which typically reach up to 3 cm in diameter. Acorns take between 1.5 to 3 years to fully mature, and may go unnoticed during their early stages of development.

The acorns of the Shumard Oak provide food for various song birds, game birds such as wild turkey and quail, waterfowl, white-tail deer, feral hogs, and various rodents such as squirrels. The leaves and twigs can also provide browse for white-tail deer.

Diseases

Oak wilt can attack all red oaks, including the Shumard Oak. Other diseases that attack Shumard Oaks are various fungi that can grow on the leaves, Powdery Mildew, canker diseases, and shoestring root.

Cultivation and uses

Shumard Oak is valued for commercial use, as a shade tree, and as a food source for various birds and mammals. It is cultivated at least as far north as Ottawa, Ontario and as far south as Lake Worth, Florida. It is tolerant of wide ranges of pH levels in soil. It is drought resistant, and prefers partial to full sunlight. Shumard Oaks begin to bear seeds at a minimum of 25 years of age, and the optimum age for seed development is 50 years of age. Shumard Oaks are known to have reached at least 480 years of age. The roots are intolerant to disturbance, so the tree should be planted in its permanent position at an early age.

Shumard Oak lumber is grouped with other Red Oak lumber for use in flooring, furniture, interior trim, molding, paneling, and cabinetry.

External links

* [http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233501082 Flora of North America: "Quercus shumardii"]
*: [http://www.efloras.org/object_page.aspx?object_id=6876&flora_id=1 Range Map]
* [http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/forestry/Education/ohiotrees/oakshumard.htm Ohio Trees]
* [http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/volume_2/quercus/shumardii.htm US Forest Service Silvics Manual]
* [http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/ornamentals/natives/quercusshumardii.htm Texas Native Trees]
* [http://www.cnr.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=169 Virginia Tech Dendrology]
* [http://rnrstreamer.lsu.edu/ecosystems/webtour/species/shumardoak/shumardoak.htm Louisiana State University Agriculture Center]
* [http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QUSHS USDA Plantguide]
* [http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Quercus+shumardii&CAN=LATIND Plants For A Future]
* [http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ST561 University of Florida]
* [http://www.floridagardener.com/FLNatives/ShumardOak.htm Shumard Oak at West Palm Beach, Florida]
* [http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/species/frame/qush.htm "Quercus shumardii" images at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Shumard oak — floridinis ąžuolas statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Bukinių šeimos medieninis augalas (Quercus shumardii), paplitęs Šiaurės Amerikoje. atitikmenys: lot. Quercus shumardii angl. Shumard oak; Shumard red oak; southern red oak; spotted oak;… …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

  • Shumard oak — noun large deciduous red oak of southern and eastern United States having large seven lobed to nine lobed elliptical leaves, large acorns and medium hard coarse grained wood • Syn: ↑Shumard red oak, ↑Quercus shumardii • Hypernyms: ↑red oak * * *… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Shumard red oak — floridinis ąžuolas statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Bukinių šeimos medieninis augalas (Quercus shumardii), paplitęs Šiaurės Amerikoje. atitikmenys: lot. Quercus shumardii angl. Shumard oak; Shumard red oak; southern red oak; spotted oak;… …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

  • Shumard red oak — noun large deciduous red oak of southern and eastern United States having large seven lobed to nine lobed elliptical leaves, large acorns and medium hard coarse grained wood • Syn: ↑Shumard oak, ↑Quercus shumardii • Hypernyms: ↑red oak * * * noun …   Useful english dictionary

  • red oak — 1. any of several oak trees, as Quercus rubra, or Q. falcata, of North America. 2. the hard, cross grained wood of these trees. [1625 35, Amer.] * * * ▪ subgenus  any member of a group or subgenus (Erythrobalanus) of North American ornamental and …   Universalium

  • red oak — noun any of numerous American oaks having 4 stamens in each floret, acorns requiring two years to mature and leaf veins usually extending beyond the leaf margin to form points or bristles • Hypernyms: ↑oak, ↑oak tree • Hyponyms: ↑southern red oak …   Useful english dictionary

  • southern red oak — floridinis ąžuolas statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Bukinių šeimos medieninis augalas (Quercus shumardii), paplitęs Šiaurės Amerikoje. atitikmenys: lot. Quercus shumardii angl. Shumard oak; Shumard red oak; southern red oak; spotted oak;… …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

  • spotted oak — floridinis ąžuolas statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Bukinių šeimos medieninis augalas (Quercus shumardii), paplitęs Šiaurės Amerikoje. atitikmenys: lot. Quercus shumardii angl. Shumard oak; Shumard red oak; southern red oak; spotted oak;… …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

  • swamp red oak — floridinis ąžuolas statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Bukinių šeimos medieninis augalas (Quercus shumardii), paplitęs Šiaurės Amerikoje. atitikmenys: lot. Quercus shumardii angl. Shumard oak; Shumard red oak; southern red oak; spotted oak;… …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

  • Northern Red Oak — Taxobox name = Northern Red Oak status = G5 status system = TNC status ref =Citation last =NatureServe first = author link = last2 = first2 = author2 link = contribution = Quercus rubra title = NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life …   Wikipedia


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