- Moshav shitufi
A Moshav shitufi (Hebrew: מושב שיתופי, lit. collective moshav, pl. moshavim shitufiim) is a type of cooperative village in Israel whose organizational principles place it between the kibbutz and the moshav on the scale of cooperation. A classical moshav (formally known as moshav ovdim, or workers' moshav) is a village-level service cooperative that takes care of farm services (such as marketing, supply, and credit) for its members, while all production and consumption activities are handled at the level of families and households. A classical kibbutz is a village-level production cooperative, with all production, consumption, and service decisions handled collectively. Moshav shitufi is an intermediate form, in which production and services are handled collectively, while consumption decisions remain the responsibility of the households. Moshav shitufi members are engaged in agriculture and industry in the village and also work in various professions outside the community, contributing their salary to the collective.
The first moshav shitufi, Kfar Hittim in Lower Galilee, was established in 1936. Moshav shitufi has never been as widespread as moshav or kibbutz. Thus, at the end of 2006 there were 40 such cooperative villages in Israel, compared with 400 moshavim and nearly 300 kibbutzim. The population in moshavim shitufiim was around 18,000, compared with 350,000 in moshavim and kibbutzim combined. There have been numerous instances in the history of cooperative agriculture in Israel when a kibbutz or a moshav reorganized as moshav shitufi, and vice versa. Thus, Moledet, the second moshav shitufi created in Israel, was founded in 1937 as a kibbutz and then reorganized in 1944 as moshav shitufi Bnei Brit (named after the Bnai Brith organization in the United States), reverting to the original name Moledet in 1957.
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Moshav shitufi — Un Moshav shitufi ((he) מושב שיתופי, littéralement moshav collectif, pluriel moshavim shitufiim) est un type de village coopératif israélien qui se situe entre le kibboutz et le moshav. Dans un moshav classique (souvent dénommé moshav ovdim,… … Wikipédia en Français
Moshav Shitufi — It is the middle way in settlement between the kibbutz and the moshav ovdim. It resembles the kibbutz in its communal production and is like the moshav in its individual family consumer framework. The first moshav shitufi was set up in 1936 at … Historical Dictionary of Israel
moshav shitufi — … Useful english dictionary
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POPULATION — THE JEWISH POPULATION Growth by Aliyah In 1882 the Jewish population of Ereẓ Israel numbered some 24,000, roughly 5% of the total, and about 0.3% of the world Jewish population. Since then there has been an almost continuous flow of aliyah, which … Encyclopedia of Judaism