- The Bible and homosexuality
The Bible and homosexuality is a contentious subject that influences how
homosexualityand homosexual sex are regarded in societies where Christianity has made a strong impact. The Bibleis generally considered by believers to be inspired by Godor to record God's relationship with humanity or the nation of Israel. Some Christians view the Bible as fallible, perhaps being in part divinely inspired, but suffering from the shortcomings resulting from being written, censored, translated, and revised by humans who wrote down the prior oral traditions. Conservative Christianitysees the original texts of the Bible as inerrant, or at least infallible, regardless of the many versions due to differing translations, interpretations, additions and omissions; as the literal word of God. Some Christians, along with many non-Christians, see the Bible as mythology, purely symbolic or didactic folklore, which contains irrelevant and obsolete morality. The Eastern Orthodox Churchregards the Bible as the deposit of the Apostolic Tradition, handed down from the Apostles who had personally known Jesus Christ.
The understanding of many Biblical interpreters is summarised by
David Hilborn(2002, p.1) who argues: "It must be granted that direct references to homosexual activity in the Bible are relatively few. However, these more explicit texts belong to a much broader Biblical discourse on creation, love, holiness and human relationships - a discourse which goes to the heart of God’s purpose for humankind". Additionally, within Christian groups such as Catholicismthese passages have traditionally been interpreted in light of other accepted revealed sources, such as the revelations to the mystic- saints, which often do contain more explicit and detailed descriptions clarifying the matter (e.g., St. Hildegard von Bingen's visions in "Scivias"). Protestantdenominations generally do not make use of such sources.
The interpretation of these passages and their place within the religion's wider understanding of God's purpose for humankind therefore has important implications for
homosexuality and Judaism, homosexuality and Christianity, and homosexuality and Islam. However, there are those who argue that reason, traditionand experienceare also important elements in the interpretation of the biblical texts (see, for example, Richard Hooker). Some also dispute whether or not these passages refer to other forms of sexual behavior between members of the same sex ( paganrites, casual sex, pederasty, and same-sex rape, for example), or to all types of homosexuality as a general category like heterosexuality.
Passages from the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible(part of the Old Testament, according to many Christians, but generally considered by Protestants to be identical with the Old Testament) is widely regarded by both Jews and Christians as having been written directly or inspired by God. "Mainstream Christianity has always recognised the authority of many of the ethical commands of the Old Testament". ["Issues in human sexuality", para. 2.24; see also Old Testament#Christian view of the Law] For example Article 7 of the Thirty-Nine Articlesof the Church of Englandsays that Christians are still bound by the moral commandments, although not the ceremonial, ritual or civil laws.
Genesis 1 and 2: Creation
The first two chapters of the first book of the Bible,
Genesisdescribe God's creation of the world and his creation of man and woman. In the King James version that for many centuries was the most common translation of the Bible in English, Genesis 1:27-28 states:
Genesis 2 says:
cquote|And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof; And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man. And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh. And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed. (KJV; Genesis 2:23-24).
Hilborn (2002, p.1) therefore argues that these verses are: "foundational for the classical Judaeo-Christian teaching that sexual intercourse is designed for expression solely within the life-long, marital relationship of a man and a woman."
However, it has also been argued that this line of reasoning is an example of the
is-ought problemand that these verses do not exclude other types of relationship.cite book| last =Vasey | first =Michael| title =Strangers and Friends| publisher =Hodder and Stoughton|date=1995| id = ISBN 0-340-60814-5] For example, many people in the Hebrew Bible are in polygamous marriages, which are not condemned. Furthermore, Williams (2002, p.23) has argued that while Genesis 2 describes a relational norm, it cannot therefore be used to argue that it prohibits other forms of relationship. One critic said such arguments amount to "an extraordinary evasion of the plain sense of the biblical text" (Hilborn 2002, p.1f). In the end, it is not surprising that a story purportedly about the ancestors of the human race would involve a heterosexual couple capable of producing offspring. This has no obvious implications one way or the other regarding the possibility, much less the appropriateness of, sexual activities that may not or cannot result in the production of offspring.Or|date=February 2008 For those who hold that these stories are not to be interpreted in a literal-factual manner, they are a depiction of humankind in symbolic terms, and in this case as well there are no obvious automatic implications regarding other possible relationships at other points in history.Or|date=February 2008
Genesis 19: Sodom and Gomorrah
Genesischapters 18 and 19 are concerned with the destruction of the cities of Sodom and Gomorrahby God. In the New American Standard Bible(NASB), the Hebrew of Genesis 19:4-8 is rendered as: Ezekiel16:49-50 (TNIV) reads:
In the New Testament, Jude 1:7 (NASB) says:
Does it refer to sexual activities? The meaning of "yada"
The NASB's "relations" has been translated in other versions as "know", the same English term used to refer to sexual encounters elsewhere in the Bible, however the Bible was not written in English. Thus a common interpretation is that Lot offered his virgin daughters to the crowd, as a means to appease the crowd and protect his visitors from sexual abuse. Although most interpret this to refer to the homosexual nature of the people in the crowd Fact|date=June 2008, the LDS Joseph Smith Translation also claims that Lot pleaded with the crowd that they take neither the men nor his daughters.
Hilborn (2002, p.3) and Compton (2003) propose that, while the sins of Sodom may include sexual sins, the ambiguity of the text means that it cannot be used to condemn homosexual relationships outright. There is a close parallel to the Sodom and Gomorrah story in Judges 19 (Issues in human sexuality, para 2.12). This same report (ibid.) also argues that the other references in both the Old and New Testament are general and that while Sodom became "a stock image for extreme sinfulness" it was not "a symbol for one particular sin".
The mainstream opinion among biblical interpreters maintains that, taken in the context of the events of Genesis 19:4-8, there is clear indication that homosexuality is at least one specific sin responsible for the destruction of Sodom (Homosexuality: The Christian Perspective, Q. 3; White-Neill 2002; Bahnsen 1978).
No classic source on Genesis 19 and homosexuality
Jewish views still regard the sins of Sodom to be "failing to practice hospitality", and even though same-sex activities are condemned most harshly in
Leviticus, the opinion that Genesis 19 might refer to any other sexual act other than with Lot's daughters is alien to Jewish tradition, the culture that brought fourth or was inspired by the Old Testament. See extensive documentation at Sodomy.
The story of Sodom and Gomorrah had never been interpreted as relating to one single, particular sin before two law novellizations by Byzantine emperor
Justinian the Greatin the 500s CE. [Gisela Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg, "Tabu Homosexualität - Die Geschichte eines Vorurteils" ("The taboo of homosexuality: The history of a prejudice"), 1978, p. 188, 190-196, 202] [Deacon Maccubbin (1994): " [http://www.rdrop.com/~jimka/sodom.html Sin and the Sodomites] "] [See also the extensive documentation at Sodomy] It was Justinian who in his novels no. 77 (dating 538) and no. 141 (dating 559) amended to his Corpus iuris civiliswas the first to declare that Sodom's sin had been specifically same-sex activities and desire for them in order to create homosexual scapegoats for recent earthquakes and other disasters of his time, but most of all to enact anti-homosexual laws that he used upon personal as well as political opponents in case he could not prove them guilty of anything else. Justinian's were not the first Roman laws prohibiting homosexual behavior (earlier such measures had been included in the " Lex Scantinia" dating from the year 149 BCE and the " Lex Julia" dating from 17 BCE, both constituting death penalty for homosexual behavior, while we have allegations that even before "Lex Scantinia", such laws existed but direct evidence was lost ["VALERI MAXIMI FACTORVM ET DICTORVM MEMORABILIVM LIBRI NOVEM", volume VI, section V ff] [Article on "struprum cum mastulo" by W. Kroll in Pauly-Wissowa (ed.), "Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft", 1921] [On "supplicium fustuarium", public beating to death for same-sex behavior in Rome long before "Lex scantinia", see Polybios, "The Histories", volume VI, chapter 37] [See article "Päderastie" by M. H. E. Meier in Ersch & Gruber (eds.), "Allgemeine Encyclopädie der Wissenschaften und Künste"] [ Theodor Mommsen, "Römisches Strafrecht", 1899, p. 703f (in English as "Roman Criminal Law")] [Wilhelm Rein, "Das Criminalrecht der Römer von Romulus bis auf Justinianus" ("Roman Criminal Law from Romulus up to Justinian I"), 1844, p. 864] [Gisela Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg, "Tabu Homosexualität - Die Geschichte eines Vorurteils" ("The taboo of homosexuality: The history of a prejudice"), 1978, p. 187] [Paul Halsall (1997): [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/pwh/just-novels.html "Justinian I: Novel 77 (538) and Novel 141 (544 CE)"] , Fordham University, The Jesuit University of New York] ), however while sticking to death penalty Justinian's legal novels heralded a change in Roman legal paradigm as in that he introduced a concept of not only mundane but also divine punishment for homosexual behavior. Individuals might ignore and escape mundane laws, however they could not do the same with divine laws if Justinian declared his novels to be such.
Justinian's interpretation of the story of Sodom would be forgotten today (as it had been along with his law novellizations regarding homosexual behavior immediately after his death) had it not been made use of in fake Charlemagnian
capitularies, fabricated by a Frankishmonk using the pseudonym "Benedictus Levita" ("Benedict the Levite") around 850 CE, as part of the Pseudo-Isidorewhere Benedictus utilized Justinian's interpretation as a justification for ecclesiastical supremacy over mundane institutions, thereby demanding burning at the stake for carnal sins in the name of Charlemagne himself (burning had been part of the standard penalty for homosexual behavior particularly common in Germanic antiquity, note that Benedictus most probably was Frankish), especially homosexuality, for the first time in ecclesiastical history in order to protect all Christianity from divine punishments such as natural disasters for carnal sins committed by individuals, but also for heresy, superstition and heathenry. According to Benedictus, this was why all mundane institutions had to be subjected to ecclesiastical power in order to prevent moral as well as religious laxity causing divine wrath.
Questionable morality of Lot?
The story's morality, as a whole, has been called into question, not just specifically the debate concerning whether or not it condemns homosexuality. Lot's daughters are offered by their father to an angry mob to be gang raped, Lot's wife is turned into a pillar of salt for looking behind her and both daughters have sex with their father, each becoming pregnant and delivering healthy children. Critics argue that a story that includes condoned incest, a father offering his daughters for gang rape, the destruction of cities, and the killing of a mother for looking behind her cannot be used to justify condemning homosexuals. These critics argue that those who attempt to justify condemnation of homosexuality with this story willfully and unfairly ignore the incest and rape. This idea, however, assumes that simply because an event is recorded, it is condoned, and that a choice between two evils requires endorsing the lesser evil as good in and of itself. The inclusion of the "don't turn around" idea from classical antiquity has been used to argue that the story is folklore, rather than the literal recording of events.
Leviticus 18 and 20
These chapters of
Leviticusform part of the Holiness code. Leviticus 18:22 says:and Leviticus 20:13 states:
It is widely argued that the things condemned in these chapters are "deemed wrong not simply because pagan Canaanites indulged in them, but because God has pronounced them wrong as such." (Hilborn 2002, p.4; cf. "Issues in human sexuality", para. 2.11; Amsel). This was also the interpretation taken in the
rabbinic interpretations in the Mishnahand Talmud, which also extended this to include female homosexual relations, although there are no explicit references in the Hebrew Bible to this.
Various counter-arguments have been suggested: Johns (2004) claims that these texts were purity codes to keep Israel separate from the
Canaanites and that as Jesus rejected the whole purity code as they are no longer relevant. West (2005, p.2) argues that "These verses in no way prohibit, nor do they even speak, to loving, caring sexual relationships between people of the same gender", speculating that these laws were to prevent sexual abuse.However, many Christian theologians hold that the New Testament classifies ceremonial and dietary laws as typological in nature and fulfilled in Christ (Galatians 4:10; Colossians 2:16; Hebrews. 9:10), and thus abrogated as to their religious observance "according to the letter," while the moral law is supposedly upheld. These Christian theologians maintain that this abrogation does not extend to homosexuality, which remains one of the few sins thoroughly condemned as an "abomination."
Analysis of the Hebrew text
A difficulty in interpreting Leviticus is that Hebrew, Greek and other relevant languages may have been ambiguously or incorrectly rendered into English. Thus the word translated as "detestable" (often also translated as "abomination"), has a different meaning in Biblical Hebrew than in English. "(See:
Abomination (Bible))". In Biblical terms, "abomination" simply signifies that which is forbidden or unclean. Likewise the phrase translated as "do not have sexual relations" ("lo tishkav") in these passages literally means "do not lie down with". In other passages (e.g., Genesis 19:34; Exodus 22:16; 22:19 and many others) to "know", to "come to" or "lie [down] with" is a euphemism for sexual intercourse(whether heterosexual or homosexual).
The Book of Ruth
This book concerns the love between Naomi and her
widowed daughter-in-law, Ruth. Naomi's husband and her two sons die and Naomi tells her daughters-in-law to return to their homes:cquote|At this they wept aloud again. Then Orpah kissed her mother-in-law good-bye, but Ruth clung to her (Ruth 1:14; TNIV).
Instead of leaving Naomi, Ruth pledges to stay with her (Ruth 1:16-18). This relationship has therefore long been commended as an example of self-sacrificing love and close friendship (eg. "Issues in Human Sexuality" para. 2.7). However, some have interpreted this relationship as probably sexual in nature. For example,
Tom Horner(1978, p.20) argues: "Whether there existed a relationship of physical love between Ruth and Naomi cannot be demonstrated. However, the right words are there." There are Biblical scholars who reject this however, as it runs counter to the author's intentionFact|date=September 2007 of portraying King David's ancestress, Ruth, as a particularly chaste and godly woman.
The word Horner is primarily concerned with is the word translated as "clung" in Ruth 1:14, which is the Hebrew word "dabaq". This word is also translated in Genesis 2:24 as "united" "to his wife" and in Genesis 34:3 as "drawn" "to Dinah daughter of Jacob; he loved the young woman". The context of these passages is one of sexual attraction.
However, the same word is also used in different contexts (Brown et al.). For example it is translated as "stay" in Ruth 2:8 (TNIV):In this context the word obviously has no sexual connotation,Fact|date=January 2008 while at the end of the book Ruth marries Boaz, with Naomi's encouragement (Ruth 3:1-4).
BA Robinson(2005) therefore concludes that "Although this same-sex friendship appears to have been very close, there is no proof that it was a sexually active relationship."
Books of Samuel: David and Jonathan
The account of the
intimate relationshipbetween David and Jonathan was recorded favourably in the Books of Samuel(1 Samuel 18; 20; 2 Samuel 1) and there is an ongoing debate whether this relationship was platonic, romantic but chaste, or sexual.
The two most significant passages are bibleverse|1|Samuel|18:3-4 (TNIV):
And 2 Samuel 1:26 (TNIV):cquote|I grieve for you, Jonathan my brother;
you were very dear to me.
Your love for me was wonderful,
more wonderful than that of women.
Biblical scholars have widely and traditionally interpreted this as a very close but non-sexual relationship (cf. "Issues in human sexuality", para. 2.17). However, a minority have argued that it was a sexual relationship whilst acknowledging that "in neither case does the text mention a sexual aspect to the relationship" (Greenberg 1988, p.113). The possible
euphemisms in the text and actions such as Jonathan disrobing (1 Samuel 18:4: "stripped himself of the robe that was upon him" KJV), perhaps in front of David (something not explicitly stated in the text and that is thought would be highly unusual at the time, outside of bathing), and kissing (bibleverse|1|Samuel|20:41) - a customary greeting between men (cf. bibleverse|2|Samuel|14:33, bibleverse-nb|2|Samuel|15:5, bibleverse-nb|2|Samuel|19:39, bibleverse-nb|2|Samuel|20:9 etc.) - are grounds on which these scholars have declared: "If modern readers do not see 'sexual relationship' in this story, it is because they cannot accept the plain implications of the story itself" (Johns 2004; cf. Crompton 2002). A useful exercise for heterosexual readers of the story is for them to replace the names of one of the male characters with a female name, and to see what impression they get. This will give a sense of how the story comes across to a homosexual reader. However, upholding the traditional position is that the stripping of Jonathan has a clear Biblical precedent, that of the stripping of Aaron of his garments to put them upon Eleazar his son (Numbers 20:26) in transference of the office of the former upon the latter. In like manner, Jonathan would be symbolically and prophetically transferring the kingship of himself (as the normal heir) to David, which would come to pass. Those who assert the opposing interpretation agree that a sexual relationship is not made explicit, and for many scholars the relationship is a "classical Biblical example" (Hilborn 2002, p.2) of close non-sexual friendship, such as the friendship eloquently described by Gregory of Nazianzusin [http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/310243.htm Oration 43,] 19-20 as existing between him and Basil of Caesarea, when they were students in Athens.
Books of Kings
Books of Kings(1 "Kings" [http://www.blueletterbible.org/cgi-bin/c.pl?book=1Ki&chapter=14&verse=24&version=KJV#24 14:24] , [http://www.blueletterbible.org/cgi-bin/c.pl?book=1Ki&chapter=15&verse=12&version=KJV#12 15:12] , [http://www.blueletterbible.org/cgi-bin/c.pl?book=1Ki&chapter=22&verse=46&version=KJV#46 22:46] ; 2 "Kings" [http://www.blueletterbible.org/cgi-bin/c.pl?book=2Ki&chapter=23&verse=7&version=KJV#7 23:7] ), refer to historical intervals when "kadeshim" ("consecrated ones") rose to some prominence in the Holy Land, until purged by Jahwist revivalist kings such as Jehoshaphatand Josiah.
The "kadeshim" were connected in some way with the rituals of the Canaanite religion. The Hebrew Bible consistently parallels the female equivalent, a "kedeshah", with "zanah", the word for a common prostitute. This has led to the inference that there may have been a sexual element to the rituals. The "King James" version systematically translates the word as "sodomites", while the "Revised Standard" version renders it, "male cult prostitutes". At 1 "Kings" 15:12 the "
Septuagint" hellenises them as "teletai" - personifications of the presiding spirits at the initiation rites of the Bacchic orgies. There may have been a transvestite element too. Various classical authors assert this of male initiates of Eastern goddess cults, and in the "Vulgate" for all four of these references St. Jerome renders the "kadeshim" as "effeminati". The sons of Israel are forbidden from becoming "kadeshim", and the daughters of Israel from becoming "kadeshot", in Deuteronomy [http://www.blueletterbible.org/cgi-bin/c.pl?book=Deu&chapter=23&verse=17&version=KJV#17 23:17-18] ; their activities are identified as "abominations".
Americans who take such Biblical passages seriously or literally on faith and morals, particularly if they primarily refer to the King James translation, tend to view practicing homosexuality (as distinguished from orientation) as an affront to God. [Patrick J. Buchanan, [http://www.worldnetdaily.com/index.php?pageId=65070 “Post-Christian America: Marriage ruling another streetlight on our ‘darkening path to perdition,”] "WorldNetDaily", May 22, 2008]
Elisha and the dead boy
In two parallel events in the
Books of Kings, Elijah(1 Kings 17:1-24) and Elisha(2 Kings 4:8-37), respectively, bring a young boy back to life by stretching his arms or body over the boy. In 1 Kings, Elijah lays the dead boy on his bed and then:cquote|he stretched himself out on the boy three times and cried out to the LORD, "LORD my God, let this boy's life return to him!" The LORD heard Elijah's cry, and the boy's life returned to him, and he lived. (1 Kings 17:21-22; TNIV).
In the near-parallel in 2 Kings, Elisha is told by the boy's mother that he has died and sends his servant to put his staff on top of the boy, but this fails. Elisha then visits the boy:cquote|When Elisha reached the house, there was the boy lying dead on his couch. He went in, shut the door on the two of them and prayed to the LORD. Then he got on the bed and lay on the boy, mouth to mouth, eyes to eyes, hands to hands. As he stretched himself out on him, the boy's body grew warm. Elisha turned away and walked back and forth in the room and then got on the bed and stretched out on him once more. The boy sneezed seven times and opened his eyes. (2 Kings 4:32-35; TNIV).
The mainstream interpretation holds that the passage describes a resuscitation ritual. Koch (2001) argues that the staff is a
phallic symboland the description of the boy sneezing is a sexual reference to ejaculation, therefore that this is a homosexual ritual.
Another passage in 2 Kings which Koch sees as significant is the meeting of King
Jehuand Jehonadab, in 2 Kings 10:15-16 (TNIV):
This passage is interpreted by most scholars as the formation of a political alliance (cf. Burns 2002, p.14), but Koch argues, rather, that this is a romantic homosexual "pick-up".
Koch's interpretations of these passages have been criticised by a number of scholars (cf. Burns 2002, p.13f) as including "sheer fantasy" and of being "a construction [which] is imposed on the text that is highly individualistic, not to say self-centered." Writing of the collection of essays of which Koch's is one, Burns (2002, p.14) writes: "this collection does not effectively present a credible application of queer theory, but one that is narrow and exclusive. In most cases there is no serious struggle with the text and few reasonable justifications for the claims that are made."
Passages from the New Testament
New Testamenttells of Jesus Christ and the first Christians and so is only recognised as inspired by God by Christians, not Jews. The attitude of most Christians to the Bible is based on 2 Timothy3:16 (TNIV): cquote|All Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness.
Matthew 5:22: "raca"
Gospel of Matthew, Jesus is reported as saying:cquote|but I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire. (Matthew 5:22; KJV). This verse involves Jesus criticizing people for using words of contempt, some which have been interpreted as referring to homosexuals. The untranslated word "Raca" is an Aramaic term of contempt, but its precise meaning is debatable. The word "raca" and similar words are common in many Semiticlanguages and some writers allege that they mean weakness or effeminacy, and are frequently used as terms of abuse for homosexuals (Robinson 2004; Halsall). Furthermore, it is alleged that the word translated as "fool" (polytonic|μωρός, from which we derive the English "moron") has a number of other meanings, including "sexual aggressor" and "homosexual aggressor". Robinson (2004) therefore concludes that "One could argue that Jesus was condemning homophobia in this passage; but it would be a weak case at best, because of the multiplicity of meanings of the key words."
In the article [http://www.indegayforum.org/news/show/27000.html|"WWJD: Jesus on Anti-gay, Anti-pedophile, Anti-incest Slurs"] , the word is said to be "racha", and evidence is presented that the word doesn't mean "fool", but instead refers to effeminacy. Matthew 5:22 presents a hierarchy of punishment, where calling someone a "fool" is the third and most serious offense, while calling a brother racha is second. Joseph Wallfield, writing under the pen name Warren Johansson, argued in support of the 1922 analysis of philologist Friedrich Schulthess, who claimed racha should be equated with "rakh", which means "sissy". Wallfield argued that racha is synonymous with the Greek "malakos", which refers to the receptive partner and carried the connotations of effeminacy and passivity. The term is found in Paul's Epistles. Also, in 1934, an ancient Egyptian papyrus was published written in Greek in 257 B.C. that used the word "rachas" with a parallel text suggesting that the word meant "kinaidos" (faggot). Wallfield discovered that German slang, which makes use of Hebrew and Aramaic words, uses the word "rach" for meanings such as "cowardly", "timid", and "effeminate".
Wallfield concluded: "What the text in Matthew demonstrates is that he forbade acts of violence, physical and verbal, against those to whom homosexuality was imputed, in line with the general emphasis on self-restraint and meekness in his teachings."An argument against this rendering points out that if "racha" means "effeminacy" (denoting homosexuals) then it would confirm that homosexuals (effeminate) are excluded from the kingdom of God (
1 Corinthians6:9-10). Moreover, the argument that Matthew 5:22 completely forbids contemptuous titles cannot be justified in the light of the clearly denigrating language that both the Lord and Paul used in reproving evil men ("fools and blind," "generation of vipers", "liars, evil beasts"). The warranted interpretation therefore is that Jesus forbade the unwarranted or unholy use of such titles.
However, many, following the interpretation of
Geseniuscontend that " [http://cf.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?strongs=4469&t=KJV racha] " is related to the Aramaic word " [http://cf.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?Strongs=H7386&t=KJV reyq] ", which means "empty" or "vain". Thus, "racha" would simply denote a "senseless, empty-headed man".
Matthew 15; Mark 7: What defiles
In Matthew 15: 19-20 (KJV) Jesus is reported as saying:
In Mark 7: 20-23 (KJV) it says:
Whether these lists include homosexuality depends on the translation of "porneia" (sexual impurity). Translations of these passages generally translate "porneia" as fornication. As Jesus does not specifically include homosexuality, it has been argued that he did not condemn it. However, it has been pointed out that this is an
argument from silencewhich has also been criticized on the grounds that the rabbis of the 1st centurygenerally included homosexuality within their condemnations of sexual immorality (Satlow 1995), although Jesus did not necessarily agree with the conclusions of the Jewish authorities of the time (i.e. his views on divorce). As "fornications" is plural, it may cover all unmarried sexual unions and/or repeated offenses of fornication.
Porneia appears a number of times in Paul's letters, always with 'arsenokoitais'. In, "Christianity, Social Tolerance and Homosexuality", John Boswell argued that the word 'arsenokoitais' in 1 Corinthians 6:19 and 1 Timothy 1:10 refers to male prostitution specifically.
Matthew 8; Luke 7: "pais"
This event is referred to in both Matthew 8:5-13 and Luke 7:1-10 and tells of Jesus healing a
Luke 7:2 (TNIV) says:
The term translated from the Greek as "servant" is "pais". This can be translated in a number of different ways including "child" (eg., Matthew 2:16; Lk 2:43, 8:51-54 where it refers to a girl), "son" (John 4:51), "servant" (Lk 15:26, Acts 4:25), or be unclear whether "son" or "servant" is meant (Acts 3:13, 3:26, 4:27, 4:30) (Marston 2003).
There are several instances in Ancient Greek literature of the term also having been used to denote a homosexual partner. For example, it is claimed that the connotation arises in the written work of individuals such as
Thucydides(460-400 BC), Eupolis (446-411 BC), Aeschines (390-314 BC), Plato, Plutarchand Callimanchus (305-240 BC). However, every other instance of the term's use within biblical scripture has been rendered true to the precision of the Greek lexicon, excluding any sexual connotation, thus marking the alternative interpretation to be somewhat of an inconsistency. It is also unclear to what degree and in what precise manner such connotations were linguistically acknowledged in the ancient world. Such observations are much more relevant, bearing in mind the interim period of several hundred years and the ensuing significant cultural changes prior to the creation of the scriptural texts.
Horner (1978) and Helminiak (2000) suggest a homosexual theme to this text. Helminiak argues that this is implied by the broader context of the narrative suggesting an unusual level of concern about the servant, whereas Horner suggests that use of the term "valued highly" implies a sexual relationship. Horner goes on to argue that, as Jesus commended the centurion for his faith (Matthew 8:10; Luke 7:9), it shows that Jesus approved of their relationship, otherwise he would have condemned him.
Biblical scholars largely dismiss such opinions as deliberately distorted interpretations of the text (Marston 2003). Furthermore, the Greek term for "valued highly" (ἔντιμος; entimos) clarifies the absence of any sexual connotation (NET Bible 2005, [http://www.bible.org/netbible/luk7_notes.htm Luke 7] ). Marston argues that Jesus would not have condoned any homosexual relationship, in line with the weight of other scriptural evidence; while Chapman (2005) suggests that even if the relationship had been homosexual, his lack of condemnation does not necessarily equate to his approval of them.
The disciple whom Jesus loved
Gospel of John, there are four verses (John 13:23; 19:26; 21:7; 21:20) which refer to the "disciple whom Jesus loved", generally interpreted to be John himself.
Several scholars have used these verses to argue that Jesus and John had a homosexual relationship, recently most notably by Jennings (2003). Jennings argues that these verses and the intimacy displayed between Jesus and John, especially at the
Last Supperwhere John is described (John 13:23) as "reclining next to him" (TNIV) or "leaning on Jesus' bosom" (KJV), implies that they were in a homosexual relationship.
However, this interpretation is rejected by most Biblical scholars, who believe that the disciple "whom Jesus loved" refers to a deep friendship and non-sexual intimacy between Christ and his favorite apostle. For example, Vasey (pp.121-124) uses the "deepest intimacy" of the friendship of Jesus and John to affirm homosexual relationships, but rejects the idea that Jesus and John themselves were in a homosexual relationship. It is also dismissed by Gagnon (2001) in his large-scale study "The Bible and Homosexual Practice", not least as the word translated "loved" is the Greek word
agape(used, for example, in John 3:16; "for God so loved the world"), rather than the Greek word referring to sexual love, eros.
Responding directly to Jennings' claims, Gagnon argued that Jennings misunderstood ancient culture, as people would recline while eating, so the man "leaning on Jesus' bosom" was simply "reclining next to" Jesus, with no homoerotic implication. Gagnon argued: "the idea that Jesus was a homosexual or engaged in homosexual acts is complete nonsense" that no "serious biblical scholar" had ever proposed (Ostling 2003).
Epistle to the Romans1:26-27 (TNIV), Paul writes
This has been described as "the most important biblical reference for the homosexuality debate" (Hilborn 2002, p.5). It is also the only apparent reference in the Bible to female homosexuality, though some maintain that this prohibition applies only to male homosexuals. [http://www.sexinchrist.com/threesomes.html] Hilborn (2002, p.6) argues that in the wider passage (Romans 1:18-32) Paul writes that the "global scope of salvation history has been made manifest not only in ‘the gospel of God's Son’ (cf. v.9), but also in the very ‘creation of the world’ (v.20)." In common with many traditional commentators, Hilborn (2002, p.7) goes on to argue that condemnation of homosexual activity is derived from the "broad contours" of Paul's argument, in addition to the selective reading of individual words or phrases.
Some commentators (eg., Boswell 1980, p.109f; Vasey 1995, p.131f) speculate that the text does not condemn homosexual acts by homosexuals, rather "homosexual acts committed by heterosexual persons" (Boswell 1980, p.109), or heterosexuals who "abandoned" or "exchanged" heterosexuality for homosexuality (McNeil, 1993). Boswell argues that the conceptual modality (
natural laws) which would provide the basis for the blanket condemnation of homosexuality did not exist prior to the Enlightenment era.
Another viewpoint is that Paul is condemning specific types of homosexual activity (such as
temple prostitutionor pederasty) rather than a broader interpretation (West 2005, p.3). West argues that Paul is speaking to a Gentile audience in terms that they would understand to show that "all have sinned and fallen short of the glory of God" (Romans 3:23).
Another area of contention is the apparent reference to female homosexuality. Most interpreters assume that, due to the analogy with same-sex lust between males, that Paul is referring to female same-sex behavior. While definitely a strong possibility, this assumption is not conclusive, and it remains difficult to discern exactly what Paul meant by women exchanging natural intercourse for unnatural (Nissinen 1998, p. 108).
Both groups of opinion are dismissed by some biblical interpreters who maintain that "the most authentic reading of Rom 1:26-7 is that which sees it prohibiting homosexual activity in the most general of terms, rather than in respect of more culturally and historically specific forms of such activity" (Hilborn 2002, p.9; also Howard, 1996, p.50). A statement by the General Synod of the Church of England ("Issues in Human Sexuality") illustrates a categorisation and understanding of homosexuality, claiming that in ancient times "society recognized the existence of those, predominantly male, who appeared to be attracted entirely to members of their own sex." ("Issues in Human Sexuality" para 2.16, lines 8-9) which almost parallels that of modern ideation. But the same study is careful to point out that "the modern concept of orientation has been developed against a background of genetic and psychological theory which was not available to the ancient world."("Issues in Human Sexuality," para 2.16, lines 16-18) Although some ancient Romans (i.e. doctors, astrologers, etc.) discussed congenital inclinations to unconventional sexual activities such as homosexuality, this classification fails to correspond to a modern psychological, biological and genetic distinction between homosexual, heterosexual and bisexual orientations (Brooten 1998, p. 242). In addition, the concept of sexual orientation as being separate from one's perceived masculinity or femininity (i.e. gender identity) did not take shape until the 19th century (Halperin 1990, p. 9).
1 Corinthians 6; 1 Timothy 1
1 Corinthians6:9-10 (TNIV), Paul says:
The word translated as "practicing homosexuals" has challenged scholars for centuries, and has been alternately rendered as "abusers of themselves with mankind" (KJV), "sodomites" (YLT), or "men who practice homosexuality". The original term is very unusual, polytonic|ἀρσενοκοίτης ("arsenokoitēs"), thought to mean "one who has sexual intercourse with a male" (Greek polytonic|ἄῤῥην / ἄρσην ["arrhēn" / "arsēn"] "male"; polytonic|κοίτην ["koitēn"] "sexual intercourse"), rather than the normal terms from the Greek culture. Within the Bible, it only occurs in this passage and in a similar list in
1 Timothy1:9-10. Paul may have been drawing from the Greek ( Septuagint) translation of Leviticus 18:22: polytonic|καὶ μετὰ ἄρσενος οὐ κοιμηθήσῃ κοίτην γυναικός· βδέλυγμα γάρ ἐστιν ("kai meta arsenos ou koimēthēsē koitēn gunaikos. bdelugma gar estin" "And you shall not have sexual intercourse with a male as with a female. For it is unclean.") Boswell (1980) argues that this is a term specifically created by Paul. Given its unusual nature, the fact that Paul did not use one of the more common Greek terms, and given its direct reference to the Levitical laws, it is a matter of debate whether Paul was referring generally to any person having homosexual sex, or whether (as discussed below) it referred only to anal sex of any form (cf. Elliott 2004). Other translations of the word include Martin's (1996), who argued it meant "homosexual slave trader" and Boswell (1980) who argued it referred to "homosexual rape".
The term "arsenokoitai" was rarely used in Church writings (Elliott 1994), with Townsley (2003) counting a total of 73 references. Most are ambiguous in nature, while St.
John Chrysostom, in the 4th century, seems to use the term "arsenokoitai" to refer to pederastycommon in the Greco-Roman culture of the timeFact|date=February 2007 , while Patriarch John IV of Constantinoplein the 6th centuryused it to refer to anal sex: "some men even commit the sin of "arsenokoitai" with their wives" (Townsley 2003).
Perhaps even more challenging is the word translated as "male prostitutes" (TNIV), "effeminate" (NASB), or "catamites" (in the footnotes of the NKJV). The Greek word polytonic|μαλακός – "malakos" carries a root meaning of soft, luxurious or dainty, but here it used in a much darker way, most likely referring to the more passive partner in a homosexual relationship. [Fee, G. (1987). The First Epistle to the Corinthians. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, p. 243] The two terms are sometimes rendered as "men who practice homosexuality" in the ESV, which notes that together they "refer to the passive and active partners in consensual homosexual acts". One major problem with this interpretation lies in the fact that "arsenokoitai" appears on its own in Timothy, without "malakos", demonstrating that the two words do not necessarily form a fixed word-pairing (Nissinen 1998, p. 114, 118). It is difficult for some to understand why Paul would condemn both the active and passive partners in male homosexual activity in 1 Corinthians 6: 9-10 but then in 1 Timothy 1: 9-10 he would only condemn the active partner, if the ESV and other similar translations are indeed accurate in their assertions.
Religion and homosexuality
Homosexuality and Christianity
Homosexuality and Judaism
Homosexual readings of Jesus and John
Homosexuality in ancient Greece
Biblical law in Christianity
* Amsel, Nachum. [http://www.lookstein.org/resources/homosexuality_amsel.pdf "Homosexuality in Orthodox Judaism"] .
*Bahnsen, Greg L. 1978 "Homosexuality: A Biblical View". ISBN 0-8010-0744-5
* Bahnsen, Greg L. 1994 " [http://www.cmfnow.com/articles/pe182.htm In the Shadow of Sodom: Does the Bible Really Say What We Thought About Homosexuality?] "
*Biblical Studies Press 1996-2005 " [http://www.bible.org/netbible/index.htm The NET Bible] ".
* Boswell, John. 1980 "Christianity, Social Tolerance and Homosexuality". University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-06711-4
* Brooten, Bernadette. 1998 "Love Between Women: Early Christian Responses to Female Homoeroticism" University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-07592-3
* Brown, Driver, Briggs and Gesenius. " [http://www.studylight.org/lex/heb/view.cgi?number=1692 Hebrew Lexicon entry for Dabaq] ". The Old Testament Hebrew Lexicon.
* Brunson, Hal. 2007 "Lesbos, Narcissus, and Paulos: Homosexual Myth and Christian Truth". ISBN-10: 0595405967 [http://www.iuniverse.com/bookstore/book_detail.asp?isbn=0-595-40596-7]
* Catholic Answers 2005 " [http://www.catholic.com/library/Early_Teachings_on_Homosexuality.asp Early Teachings on Homosexuality] ", iuniverse, 2007.
* Dover, Kenneth. 1978 "Greek Homosexuality." Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674362705
* Durns, John Barclay 2002 " [http://moses.creighton.edu/jrs/pdf/2002-4.pdf Lot’s Wife Looked Back] ". Journal of Religion and Society 4, p.1-16.
*Chapman, Patrick 2005 " [http://www.rainbowcenteroly.org/rjo/rjo0511/ThePast.htm Homosexuals in the Bible: Jesus, John, the Centurion and the Slave?] ". Rainbow Journal Olympia, vol 2(1) (November 2005).
* Crompton, Louis, et al. 2003 "Homosexuality and Civilization". The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press ISBN 0-674-01197-X
*Elliott, John 2004 "No kingdom of God for softies? or, what was Paul really saying? 1 Corinthians 6:9-10 in context" [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0LAL/is_1_34/ai_n6147828/print Biblical Theology Bulletin Spring 2004] .
* Gagnon, Robert A. J. 2001 "The Bible and Homosexual Practice". Abingdon Press. ISBN 0-687-08413-X
*Greenberg, David 1988 "The construction of homosexuality". University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-30628-3
*Halsall, Paul. [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/pwh/lgbcathbib.html"Homosexuality and Catholicism: A Partially Annotated Bibliography"]
*Helminiak, Daniel 2000 "What the Bible really says about homosexuality". Alamo Square Press. ISBN 1-886360-09-X
*Hilborn, David. 2002 [http://www.eauk.org/theology/headline_issues/faithhopeandhomosexuality/upload/homosexualityandscripture.pdf Homosexuality and Scripture] .
*Horner, Tom. 1978 "Jonathan Loved David". Westminster Press. ISBN 0-664-24185-9
*House of Bishops 1991 "Issues in Human Sexuality". Church of England. ISBN 0-7151-3745-X
*Howard, Kevin L. "Paul's View of Male Homosexuality: An Exegetical Study." M.A. thesis (unpublished). Trinity Evangelical Divinity School. Deerfield, Illinois. June 1996.
* Jennings, Theodore 2003 "The Man Jesus Loved: Homoerotic Narratives From the New Testament". Pilgrim Press. ISBN 0-8298-1535-X
*Johns, Loren 2004 [http://www.ambs.edu/LJohns/Homosexuality.htm "Homosexuality and the Bible: A Case Study in the Use of the Bible for Ethics "] (The Academic Dean of the Associated
*Koch, Timothy R 2001 "Cruising as methodology : homoeroticism and the scriptures", In Queer Commentary and the Hebrew Bible, ed. Ken Stone, Pilgrim Press. ISBN 0-8298-1447-7
*Martin, Dale. 1996 "Arsenokoites and malakos: Meanings and Consequences", pp.117-136. In Biblical Ethics and Homosexuality. Ed Robert Brawley. Westminster Press ISBN 0-664-25638-4.
*Marston, Paul 2003 [http://www.fmcuk.org.uk/social%20issues/homosexuality.htm 'Christians, Gays and Gay Christians'] . Free Methodists.
*McNeill, J. J. 1993 "The Church and the Homosexual". Beacon Press. (4th edn.). ISBN 0-8070-7931-6
*Nissinen, Martti. 1998 "Homoeroticism in the Biblical World: A Historical Perspective." Augsburg Fortress Publishers. ISBN 0-8006-2985-X
*Ostling, R. N. 2003 [http://www.suntimes.com/output/religion/cst-nws-req29.html Book claims Jesus had homosexual relationship] Chicago Sun-Times 29th May 2003.
*Robinson, B. A. 1996-2005 [http://www.religioustolerance.org/hom_bibl.htm What the Bible says about homosexuality] . Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance.
*Satlow, Michael 1995 "Tasting the Dish: Rabbinic Rhetorics of Sexuality". Scholars Press. ISBN 0-7885-0159-3
*Townsley, Jeramy 2003 " [http://www.jeramyt.org/gay/arsenok.htm All known references to arsenokoit*] "
*West, Mona 2005 [http://www.mccchurch.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Resources&Template=/CM/HTMLDisplay.cfm&ContentID=583 "The Bible and Homosexuality"] .
Metropolitan Community Church.
* White, James and Neill, Jeffrey 2002 "The Same Sex Controversy: Defending and Clarifying the Bible's Message About Homosexuality". ISBN 0-7642-2524-3
* Williams, Rowan 2002 ’The Body’s Grace’, in Eugene F. Rogers (ed.), Theology and Sexuality: Classic and Contemporary Readings, Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-21277-9
* [http://www.sacred-texts.com/lgbt/index.htm Sacred-text LGBT section]
* [http://mercytoall.net/dtm/ A pro-gay look at the Bible passages on the subject of homosexuality] (Link Down)
* [http://www.religioustolerance.org/hom_bibl.htm What the Bible says about homosexuality (summary of pro- and con- points of view)]
* [http://www.evangelicalbible.com/homosexual.htm Homosexuality: A Christian Perspective] A clear, succint evangelical article.
* [http://www.tanbooks.com/doct/church_sodomy.htm Biblical passages on homosexuality]
* [http://www.christianity.ca/news/commentary/2003/06.000.html The Bible on Homosexuality]
* [http://www.bible.org/page.asp?page_id=1302 Homosexuality: The Christian Perspective (discusses Biblical verses concerning the subject)]
* [http://www.apa.org/topics/orientation.html APA: Answers to Your Questions About Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality]
* [http://www.utexas.edu/courses/citylife/tomb_of_diver.html The Tomb of the Diver (homosexuality in the ancient world)]
* [http://www.gerrior.net/Resources/SexAndTheBible/03.Porneia.htm Porneia]
* [http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/literal.htm Literal Genesis]
* [http://www.neednotfret.com/content/view/124/89/ The Old Testament and Homosexuality]
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