Battle of Sheriffmuir


Battle of Sheriffmuir

Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Editing Battle of Sheriffmuir


caption=
partof=the Jacobite Rising
date=13 November 1715
place=Sheriffmuir, Scotland
result=Strategic victory for British government, although both sides claimed victory:

Battle inconclusive: Strategic victory for British Government as Jacobites forced to withdraw, failed to fight again and rising ended, until 1719.
combatant1=British Government forces
combatant2=Jacobite Rebels
commander1=John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll
commander2=John Erskine, 6th Earl of Mar
strength1=6000
strength2=12000
casualties1=600 killed and wounded
casualties2=800 killed and more wounded|
The Battle of Sheriffmuir (Scottish Gaelic: Blàr Sliabh an t-Siorraim) was an engagement in 1715 at the height of the Jacobite rebellion in England and Scotland.

John Erskine, 6th Earl of Mar, standard-bearer for the Jacobite cause in Scotland, mustered Highland chiefs and, on September 6, declared James Francis Edward Stuart King of Scots. With an army of about 12,000 men Mar proceeded to take Perth, and commanded much of the northern Highlands. Following unsuccessful skirmishes against John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll (fortified at Stirling), Mar was eventually persuaded to lead his full army south, doing so on 10 November. Spies informed Argyll of Mar's actions, and he moved his army of about 4,000 to Sheriffmuir, near Dunblane. The two armies met on 13 November.

Argyll was vastly outnumbered by the Jacobite army (which was somewhat diminished from its previous numbers), and his left wing, commanded by General Whetham, was far shorter than the Jacobites' opposing right. Argyll's right wing attacked, and managed to drive the Highlanders back, but Whetham's soldiers were overpowered by a much larger force. Argyll came to the aid of Whetham's men. By evening, both armies were seriously reduced, and although Mar had a great advantage in numbers, he refused to risk the entirety of his army, allowing Argyll to withdraw.

The battle was inconclusive, and both sides claimed victory. Those government regiments present that were titled 'King's' were awarded the White Horse of Hanover as a badge as a form of battle honour. The engagement only served to demoralise the Jacobite army who, with their vastly superior numbers, felt they should have decisively won. Mar's French and Spanish supporters in particular withdrew their forces.

On 23 December, the "Old Pretender" James Stuart, who had been exiled in France, landed at Peterhead, his cause largely lost. He met with Mar at Perth, but was unable to rouse the disheartened army. Argyll, reinforced and invigorated, soon advanced north, while the Jacobite army fled to Montrose, and the Pretender returned to France. The Army moved to Ruthven, and dispersed.

The period indeed was fatal in the extreme to the Jacobite Pretender. The whole body of his adherents in the south had fallen into the hands of generals Willis and Carpenter at Preston, and Inverness, with all the adjacent country, had been recovered to the government, through the exertions of pro-government clans including the Earl of Sutherland, Fraser Lord Lovat, the Rosses, the Munros, and the Forbeses. [ [http://www.electricscotland.com/history/other/campbell_john2.htm John Campbell ] ]

The number of the slain on the side of the rebels has been stated to have been eight hundred, among whom were the John Lyon, 5th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne and the chief of the Clan MacDonald of Clan Ranald, and several other persons of distinction. Panmure and Drummond of Logie were among the wounded. It meant that the Jacobite army had to withdraw to Perth. Argyll considered himself the victor and struck a medal to commemorate his feat.

Of the royal government army there were killed, and wounded, upwards of six hundred. The lord Forfar was the only person of eminence killed on that side. [ [http://www.electricscotland.com/history/other/campbell_john2.htm John Campbell ] ]

A popular Jacobite song, "Will Ye Go to Sheriffmuir", was written about the battle. As with many such songs, the battle is presented as a noble victory for the Jacobite army. The song was collected by, and perhaps written by, James Hogg in 1819.

Robert Burns 'The Battle of Sherramuir'

The Battle was the subject of one of the most famous songs written by Robert Burns called 'The Battle of Sherramuir'. The song was written when Burns toured the Highlands in 1787 and was first published in "The Scots Musical Museum", appearing in vol.III, 1790. It was written to be sung to the 'Cameronian Rant'.

Burns knew that the battle ended so inconclusively that it was unclear which side had won and the poem is the account of the battle by two shepherds taking contrary views. One of the shepherds believes that "the red-coat lads wi' black cockades" routed the rebels, painting a fearful picture of how they managed to "hough the Clans like nine-pin kyles". The other shepherd is just as convinced that the Jacobites "did pursue / The horsemen back to Forth, man" with the eventual result that "...mony a huntit, poor Red-coat / For fear amaist did swarf, man."

[Dissatisfied with the first published version of the poem, Burns re-wrote it sometime after 1790. The revised version was published after Burns' death by his editor, James Currie M.D. in "The Complete Poetical Works of Robert Burns: With Explanatory and Glossarial Notes; And a Life of the Author" (1800).]

External links

* [http://www.scotwars.com/html/battle_of_sheriffmuir.htm Battle of Sheriffmuir at ScotWars.com]
* [http://www.battlefieldstrust.com/resource-centre/stuart-rebellions/battleview.asp?BattleFieldId=70 Battle of Sherrifmuir at BattlefieldTrust.com]
* [http://www.clan-cameron.org/battles/1715.html Battle of Sheriffmuir at Clan Cameron.com]
* [http://www.electricscotland.com/history/other/campbell_john2.htm John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll@ElectricScotland.com]

References and Bibliography

* Smurthwaite, David, Ordnance Survey Complete Guide to the Battlefields of Britain, Webb & Bower Ltd., 1984
* Mileham, Patrick (2000), "Difficulties Be Damned: The King's Regiment - A History of the City Regiment of Manchester and Liverpool", Fleur de Lys ISBN 1-873907-10-9


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