- Kate Bush
Infobox musical artist
Name = Kate Bush
Img_capt = Kate Bush about to perform at Comic Relief 1986
Img_size = 174
Background = solo_singer
Birth_name = Catherine Bush
Born = birth date and age|1958|07|30|df=yes
Bexleyheath, Kent, England
Instrument = Vocals,
piano, keyboards, bass, guitar, violin
Alternative rock, art rock, pop rock
Musician, vocalist, songwriter, record producer
Years_active = 1975–present
URL = [http://www.katebush.com/ www.katebush.com]
Kate Bush (born Catherine Bush on 30 July 1958) is an English singer, songwriter, musician, and
record producer. Her eclectic musical style and idiosyncraticlyrics have made her one of England's most successful solo female performers of the past 30 years. Bush was signed by EMIat the age of 16 after being recommended by Pink Floyd's David Gilmour. In 1978, aged 19, she topped the UK chartsfor four weeks with her debut song "Wuthering Heights", becoming the first woman to have a UK number one with a self-written song.
After her 1979 tour, which is the only tour of her career, Bush released the 1980 album "
Never for Ever", which made her the first solo female British singer to top the UK album charts. In 1987, she won a BRIT Award for Best British Female Solo Artist. She has released eight albums, three of which topped the UK album charts, and has had UK top ten hit singles with " Running Up That Hill", "King of the Mountain", "Babooshka", " The Man with the Child in His Eyes", and "Don't Give Up".
In 2002, her songwriting ability was recognised with an
Ivor Novello Awardfor Outstanding Contribution to British Music. In 2005, Bush released "Aerial", her first album in 12 years. The album was a UK success and earned her a BRIT Awardnomination for Best Album and another for Best Solo Female Artist. She has also been nominated for three Grammy Awards.
Bush was born in
Bexleyheath, Kent, to English physicianRobert Bush and his Irish wife Hannah Daly.cite web | title = Kate Bush: Return of the recluse| work =The Independent|author= Sweeting, Adam | url = http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/kate-bush-return-of-the-recluse-509224.html| date =2005-10-02 | accessdate = 2008-05-15] She was raised in their farmhouse in East Wickham, Kent (just inside the Greater Londonboundary) with her older brothers, John and Paddy.cite web | title = Kate Bush | publisher = Salon.com | url = http://archive.salon.com/people/bc/2001/03/20/kate_bush/index.html | accessdate = 2007-04-22 ] Bush came from an artistic background: her mother was a former Irish folk dancer, her father was an accomplished pianist, Paddy worked as a musical-instrument maker, and John was a poet and photographer. Both brothers were involved in the local folk musicscene.cite news |last=Young |first=David |title = Haunting Kate Bush | work = NZ Listener |date= 1978-12-02] Her family's musical influence inspired the young Kate to teach herself to play the piano at age 11. She soon began writing her own tunes and eventually added lyricsto them.cite book | last = Gaar | first = Gillian | title = She's a Rebel |year=1993 ] At school, she was encouraged to take violin lessons, but the piano was her passion.Fact|date=June 2008
Bush attended St. Joseph's Convent Grammar School (became the St Joseph's Campus of
Bexley Collegethen knocked down for housing), a Catholic girls school, on "Woolwich Road" in Abbey Wood, London, in the mid-1970s. During this time her family produced a demo tapewith over 50 of her compositions that was turned down by record labels. David Gilmourof Pink Floydreceived the demo from Ricky Hopper, a mutual friend of Gilmour and the Bush family. Impressed with what he heard, Gilmour helped Bush get a more professional-sounding demo tape recorded that would be more saleable to the record companies.cite news | last = Cowley | first = Jason | title = The Wow Factor | work = The New Statesman|date= 2005-02-07] The tape was produced by Gilmour's friend Andrew Powell, who would go on to produce Bush's first two albums. The tape was sent to EMIexecutive Terry Slater who would become famous for signing The Sex Pistols. Slater was impressed by the tape and signed her.cite web | title = Kate Bush | publisher = EMI | url = http://www.emi-premier.co.uk/loader.html | accessdate = 2007-04-03 ] At that time Pink Floydwas an important act to EMI. The mid 1970s were a stagnant time in the history of the British record industry. Progressive rockwas very popular and visually-oriented rock performers were growing in popularity thus record labels looking for the next big thing were considering experimental acts.
For the first two years of her contract, Bush spent more time on schoolwork than making an album. She left school after doing her mock A-levels and having gained ten GCE
O-Levelqualifications.cite news | last = Williamson | first = Nigel | title = The Mighty Bush | work = Scotland on Sunday|date= 2005-10-02] In 2005, Bush stated in an interview with Mark Radcliffeon BBC Radio 2that she believed EMI signed her before she was ready to make an album so that no other record company could offer her a contract. After the contract signing, EMI forwarded her a sizable advance which she used to enroll in interpretive danceclasses taught by Lindsay Kemp, who was also a former teacher of David Bowie.cite news | title = Today's Style And Looks | work = Face & Figure |year=1979 ]
Bush also wrote and made demos of close to 200 songs, a few of which today can be found on bootleg recordings and are known as the "
Phoenix Recordings". [cite web | title = Demos: The Phoenix recordings | publisher = Last.fm | url = http://www.last.fm/music/Kate+Bush/Demos%253A+The+Phoenix+recordings+%252F+Studio+Sessions | accessdate = 2007-04-03 ] From March to August 1977, she fronted the KT Bush Band at public houses around London - specifically at the Rose of Lee public house (now Dirty South) in Lewisham. The other three band members were Del Palmer(bass), Brian Bath (guitar), and Vic King (drums). She began recording her first album in August 1977, although two tracks had been recorded during the summer of 1975.
filename=Kate Bush Wuthering Heights Sample.ogg
title=Kate Bush "Wuthering Heights" (1978)
description=Sample from Kate Bush's "Wuthering Heights".As part of her preparation for entering the studio, Bush toured pubs with the KT Bush Band. However, for her debut album "
The Kick Inside" (1978) she was persuaded to use established session musicians, some of whom she would retain even after she had brought her bandmates back on board.cite web | title = Kate Bush Biography | publisher = Lyricsystem.com | url = http://www.lyricsystem.com/kate-bush/ | accessdate = 2007-04-22 ] Her brother Paddy Bush played the harmonicaand mandolin, unlike on later albums where he would play more exotic instruments such as the balalaikaand didgeridoo. Stuart Elliott played some of the drums and would become her main percussionist on subsequent albums,cite book | title = Lyrics booklets from Kate Bush's albums | publisher = EMI | ] along with session drummer Charlie Morgan, who later went on to work regularly with Elton John. Preston Heymanwas credited with some subsequent studio work but mostly performed on Bush's live tour of 1979.
Bush released "The Kick Inside" when she was 19 years old, but some of the songs had been written when she was as young as 13.cite web|title = Kate Bush—Singer-songwriter|publisher =BBC| date =
2005-02-04| url = http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A3502568| accessdate = 2007-04-04 ] EMI originally wanted the more rock-oriented track "James and the Cold Gun" to be her debut single, but Bush insisted that it should be "Wuthering Heights". Even at this early stage of her career, she had gained a reputation for her determination to have a say in decisions affecting her work. "Wuthering Heights" topped the UK and Australian charts and became an international hit. Bush became the first woman to reach number one in the UK charts with a self-penned song.cite news | last = Barkham | first = Patrick | title = Guardian profile: Kate Bush | url = http://arts.guardian.co.uk/features/story/0,,1581815,00.html | work = The Guardian | date= 2005-09-30| accessdate = 2007-09-10] A second single, "The Man with the Child in His Eyes", reached number six on the UK charts.cite web | title = The Man with the Child in His Eyes | publisher = Songfacts.com | url = http://www.songfacts.com/detail.php?id=4831 | accessdate = 2007-04-22 ] It also made it onto the American Billboard Hot 100where it reached number 85 in early 1979, but it was Bush's only single to do so for nearly another seven years. "The Man with the Child in His Eyes" went on to win her an Ivor Novello Awardin 1979 for Outstanding British Lyric. [cite web | title = Awards Database | publisher = The Envelope | url = http://theenvelope.latimes.com | accessdate = 2007-04-03 ]
EMI capitalised on Bush's appearance by promoting the album with a poster of her in a tight pink top that emphasised her breasts. In an interview with "
NME" magazine in 1982, Bush criticised the marketing technique, stating: "People weren't even generally aware that I wrote my own songs or played the piano. The media just promoted me as a female body. It's like I've had to prove that I'm an artist in a female body." In late 1978, EMI persuaded Bush to quickly record a follow-up album, "Lionheart", to take advantage of the success of "The Kick Inside". Bush has often expressed dissatisfaction with "Lionheart", feeling that she needed more time to get it right. The album was rushed out of the studio in Niceon the French Riviera, making this her only album to be wholly recorded outside the UK. The album was produced by Andrew Powell, assisted by Bush. While it has its share of hits, most notably "Wow", it did not receive the same reception as her first album, reaching number six in the UK album charts.cite book | title = The Whole Story album lyrics booklet | publisher = EMI |year=1986 | ] "Lionheart" is the first record on which her then-boyfriend Del Palmer worked as a bassist. Palmer went on to play bass or to engineer and record every album since.
Bush was displeased with being rushed into making the second album. She set up her own publishing company, Kate Bush Music, and her own management company, Novercia, in order to maintain complete control over her work. The board of directors of these companies were herself and members of her family. Following the album's release, she was required by EMI to undertake heavy promotional work and an exhausting tour, the only one of her career. [cite news|title=Stand By Your Mantra |work=Classic Rock |year=2004] The tour, named
The Tour of Life, began in April 1979 and lasted six weeks. Typical of her determination to have control, she was involved in every aspect of the show's production, choreography, set design, and staff recruitment. During the tour, Bush became the first singer to use a wireless headset radio microphone on stage, [cite news| last=Badhorn|first=Philippe|title=Interview in Rolling Stone (France)|work= Rolling Stone|date=February 006 |] which allowed her to incorporate extensive dance routines into her live shows.
However, Bush disliked the exposure and the celebrity lifestyle associated with promotional work, given that her main priority was making music. As she moved into producing her own work, Bush began a slow and steady withdrawal from public life. It was at this stage of her career that she developed her perfectionist approach, in which she spent long periods of time in the studio, only meeting the press when albums were released. Bush would disappear for up to four years while honing new material, which led to rumours in the press concerning her health or appearance.cite news | title = Little Miss Can't Be Wrong | work = Q magazine |date=December 1993] In the past, stories of weight gain or mental instability have been disproved by Bush's periodic reappearance. [cite news|last=Ziegler|first=Mollie|title=The Return of a Sultry Songstress |work=The New York Sun|date=
filename=Kate Bush Babooshka Sample.ogg
title=Kate Bush "Babooshka" (1980)
description=Sample from Kate Bush's "Babooshka".multi-listen item
filename=Kate Bush There Goes A Tenner Sample.ogg
title=Kate Bush "There Goes a Tenner" (1982)
description=Sample from Kate Bush's "There Goes a Tenner".Released in September 1980, "
Never for Ever" saw Bush's second foray into production, co-producing with Jon Kelly. Her first time as a producer was on her "Live On Stage" EP, released after her tour the previous year. The first two albums had resulted in a definitive sound evident in every track, with orchestral arrangements supporting the live band sound. The range of styles on "Never for Ever" is much more diverse, veering from the straightforward rocker "Violin" to the wistful waltz of hit single " Army Dreamers". "Never for Ever" was the first Kate Bush album to be composed on synthesizers and drum machines, in particular the Fairlight CMI, to which she was introduced when providing backing vocals on Peter Gabriel's third album in early 1980. It was her first record to reach the top position in the UK album charts, also making her the first female Briton ever to achieve that status. The top-selling single from the album was "Babooshka", which reached number five in the UK singles chart. [cite web | title = Kate Bush | publisher = UnderGroundOnline | url = http://www.ugo.com/channels/music/features/bandsondemand/artist.aspx?artist=katebush&cat=Alternative&full=Kate%20Bush | accessdate = 2007-07-27 ] In November 1980, she released the Christmas single "December Will Be Magic Again", which reached number 29 in the UK charts. This was a stand-alone single not featured on any album and was recorded a year earlier, but wasn't ready in time for the Christmas market.
September 1982 saw the release of "The Dreaming", the first album Bush produced entirely by herself. With her new-found freedom, she experimented with production techniques, creating an album that features a diverse blend of musical styles and is known for its near-exhaustive use of the
Fairlight CMI. "The Dreaming" received a mixed critical reception in the UK at first. Many were baffled by the dense soundscapes Bush had created, and some critics accused the album of being over-produced. In a 1993 interview with "Q", Bush stated: "That was my 'She's gone mad' album." Ironically, the album was hailed as a "masterpiece" and a "musical "tour-de-force" by critics in America, and the album became her first to enter the US charts, albeit only reaching number 157. Despite singles from the album faring relatively badly in the UK charts, the album was a commercial success, peaking at number three in the UK album chart.cite web | title = Kate Bush—The Albums | publisher = BBC | url = http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A21197171 | accessdate = 2007-04-22 ]
Sat in Your Lap" was the first single from the album to be released. It pre-dated the album by over a year and peaked at number 11 in the UK. The following singles fared much worse. The album's title track, featuring the talents of Rolf Harrisand Percy Edwards, stalled at number 48, while the third single, " There Goes a Tenner", failed to chart at all, despite promotion from EMI and Bush. The album's most critically-acclaimed track, " Suspended in Gaffa", was surprisingly not released as a single in the UK.
Bush was in her early twenties when making the album and tended to look outside her own personal experience for sources of inspiration. She drew on old crime films for the track "There Goes A Tenner", a documentary about the war in Vietnam for "Pull Out The Pin", and the plight of
Indigenous Australiansfor "The Dreaming". "Houdini" is about the magician's death, and "Get Out Of My House" was inspired by Stanley Kubrick's film of Stephen King's novel "The Shining". The album does contain a few introspective songs. The lead single, "Sat In Your Lap", examines feelings of self-doubt versus burning self-confidence and the search for a balance between the two. "Leave It Open" speaks of the need to acknowledge and express the darker sides of one's personality within the greater context of maintaining an open mind.cite news | last = Bush | first = Kate | title = Kate's KBC article Issue 12 | publisher = KBC Newsletter |date=October 1982]
filename=Kate Bush Running Up That Hill Sample.ogg
title=Kate Bush "Running Up That Hill" (1985)
description=Sample from Kate Bush's "Running Up That Hill".In August 1985, the "
NME" featured Bush in a "Where Are They Now" article. Two days later, on "The WoganShow", the single " Running Up That Hill" was played for the first time. Considered by many reviewers to be her masterpiece, " Hounds of Love" (1985) is no less experimental than previous albums from a production standpoint. Because of the high cost of hiring studio space for her previous album, she built a private studio near her home, where she could work at her own pace.cite web|last = Ellen| first =Barbara| title = Comeback Kate|work =The Observer | url = http://arts.guardian.co.uk/features/story/0,,1582789,00.html|date = 2005-10-02| accessdate = 2007-04-04 ] "Hounds of Love" ultimately topped the charts in the UK, knocking Madonna's " Like a Virgin" from the number one position. [cite book | last = Fitzgerald Morris | first = Peter | title = Hounds of Love lyrics booklet |publisher = EMI |year=1997]
The album is split into two sides. The first side, "Hounds of Love", contains five "accessible" pop songs (each examining a particular type of love), including the four singles "Running Up That Hill", "
Cloudbusting", "Hounds of Love", and "The Big Sky". "Running Up That Hill" re-introduced Bush to American listeners and received considerable airplay at the time of its release. It expanded her small, but loyal, American fan base and climbed to number 30 on the Billboard Hot 100 in November of 1985. The second side of the album, "The Ninth Wave", takes its name from a poem by Tennyson. [cite news | title = Kate Bush radio interview | publisher = Rock Over London with Paul Cooke |year=1985 ] Each of its tracks conveys the story of a woman who is lost at sea and facing the threat of drowning.
The album earned Bush nominations for Best Female Solo Artist, Best Album, Best Single, and Best Producer at the 1986
BRIT Awards. In the same year, Bush and Peter Gabrielhad a UK top ten hit with "Don't Give Up", and EMI released her "greatest hits" album, " The Whole Story", for which she recorded the single "Experiment IV" and provided new vocals to "Wuthering Heights". Bush won the award for Best Female Solo Artist at the 1987 BRIT Awards.
The increasingly personal tone of her writing continued on 1989's "
The Sensual World", with songs about unexpressed and unrequited love("Love and Anger" and "Never Be Mine", respectively), the pressures on modern relationships ("Between a Man and a Woman"), and self-doubt and how it interfaces with parental comfort ("The Fog"). One of the quirkiest tracks on the album, touched by Bush's black humour, is "Heads We're Dancing", about a woman who dances all night with a charming stranger only to find out in the morning that he is Adolf Hitler.
filename=Kate Bush The Sensual World Sample.ogg
title=Kate Bush "The Sensual World" (1989)
description=Sample from Kate Bush's "The Sensual World".
OggThe title track drew its inspiration from James Joyce's novel "Ulysses". Bush realised that the text from Molly Bloom's Soliloquyfitted the music she had created. When the Joyce estate refused to release the text, Bush wrote original lyrics that echo the original passage, as Molly steps from the pages of the book and revels in the real world.cite news | last = Littlejohn | first = Maureen | title = The Sensual Woman | work = Network |date=March 1990]
The album contains extensive analogue
overdubbing, noticeable as a lack of clarity to the recording.cite news | title = Review of The Sensual World | work = The Absolute Sound |date=March 1990] The songs "Deeper Understanding", "Never Be Mine", and "Rocket's Tail" all feature backing vocals by the Bulgarian vocal ensemble the Trio Bulgarka. "The Sensual World" went on to become her biggest-selling album in the US, receiving an RIAA Gold certification four years after its release for 500,000 copies sold. In the United Kingdom album charts, it reached the number two position.cite web | title = Kate Bush Biography | publisher = Starpulse.com | url = http://www.starpulse.com/Music/Bush,_Kate/Biography/ | accessdate = 2007-04-22 ]
In 1991, Bush released a cover of Elton John's "
Rocket Man", which reached number 12 in the UK singles chartcite web | title =UK Top 40 Hit Database | publisher =EveryHit.com | url = http://www.everyhit.com/ | accessdate =2008-05-15 ] and in 2007 was voted the greatest cover ever by readers of " The Observer" newspaper. [cite web | url=http://observer.guardian.co.uk/omm/ttremastered/story/0,,2166706,00.html | work = The Observer | title = The top 50 greatest covers as voted by you | accessdate = 2007-10-26] "The Red Shoes" was released in November 1993. "The Red Shoes" features more high-profile cameo appearances than Bush's previous efforts, including contributions from composer and conductor Michael Kamen, comedian Lenny Henry, Prince, Eric Clapton, Gary Brookerof Procol Harum, Trevor Whittaker, and Jeff Beckalso donated their talents to the recording. The album gave Bush her highest chart position in the US, reaching number 28, although the only song from the album to make the US singles chart was "Rubberband Girl", which peaked at number 88 in January of 1994. The single fared better in Europe, breaking the top 20 in the UK and Ireland. The album reached number two in the UK.cite web | title = Back On Stage After 12 Years | publisher = Softpedia.com | url = http://news.softpedia.com/news/Kate-Bush-Back-On-Stage-After-12-Years-7653.shtml | accessdate = 2007-04-23 ] That same year, the film " The Line, the Cross & the Curve", written and directed by Bush, and starring Bush and English actress Miranda Richardson,cite web | title = The Line, The Cross & The Curve | publisher = Amazon.co.uk | url = http://www.amazon.co.uk/Kate-Bush-Line-Cross-Curve/dp/B00003JA23/ref=sr_1_2/202-4934390-5379062?ie=UTF8&s=video&qid=1177361909&sr=1-2 | accessdate = 2007-04-23 ] used six of the songs on the album.
The initial plan had been to take the songs out on the road, and so Bush deliberately aimed for a live-band feel, with less of the studio trickery that had typified her last three albums and that would be difficult to recreate on stage.cite news | title = Well red | work = Future Music |date=November 1993] The result alienated some of her fan base, who enjoyed the intricacy of her earlier compositions,cite news | last = Gettelman | first = Parry | title = The Red Shoes review | work = The Orlando Sentinel |year=1993] but others found a new complexity in the lyrics and the emotions they expressed.cite news | title = The Red Shoes review | work = Request |date=November 1993]
This was a troubled time for Bush. She had suffered a series of bereavements, including the loss of her favoured guitarist
Alan Murphy, and, most painfully, her mother Hannah. Many of the people she lost are honoured in the ballad "Moments Of Pleasure", including Michael Powell (director of the film "The Red Shoes"), with whom she had discussed working shortly before his death. Her long-term romantic relationship with Del Palmerhad also broken down, although the pair continued to work together.
After the release of "The Red Shoes", Bush dropped out of the public eye for many years, although her name occasionally cropped up in the media with rumours of a new album release. The press often viewed her as an eccentric recluse, sometimes drawing a comparison with
Miss Havishamfrom Charles Dickens's " Great Expectations".cite news | last = Barkham | first = Patrick | title = Guardian profile: Kate Bush | work = The Guardian| date= 2005-09-28] In reality, she was trying to give her young son a normal childhood, away from the world of show business. In 1998, Bush gave birth to Albert, known as "Bertie", fathered by her guitarist and now-husband Danny McIntosh.cite web |title=Kate Bush and the war of Wuthering Heights|work= The Evening Standard|date = 5 May 2007 | url= http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/news/article-23395189-details/Kate+Bush+and+the+war+of+Wuthering+Heights/article.do |accessdate=2007-05-08|] On the few occasions she has spoken to the press since, she has made it clear that motherhood has made her extremely happy. After living for many years in a large and secluded Victorian house on Court Road, between Mottingham and Eltham in her native southeast London, the couple and their son presently have two homes: a £2.5 million house in Salcombein the South Hamson the Devoncoast and a mansion on an island on the Kennet and Avon canalat Sulhamsteadin West Berkshire. [cite web |title=£100K BILL FOR KATE|work= The Sunday Mirror|url= http://www.sundaymirror.co.uk/news/sunday/tm_method=full%26objectid=18238674%26siteid=98487-name_page.html|accessdate=2007-01-19|]
Bush's eighth studio album, "Aerial", was released on double CD and vinyl in November 2005. The anticipation leading up to the album's release was immense, with press articles devoted to Bush being printed months before the album's release.cite news| title = Kate Bush: The Sequel| work = The Independent| date =
2005-09-02] Members of the press invited to hear the album for pre-release review purposes were subjected to searches for personal recording equipment, and the album itself was played to them from a sealed CD machine bolted to the floor. The first single from the album was "King of the Mountain". The track was played for the first time on BBC Radio 2on 21 September 2005 and was made available for download on 27 September 2005. [cite news | last = McKenna | first = Stephen| title = Kate Bush back on form with first single in 12 years|url= http://icscotland.icnetwork.co.uk/whatson/whatson2/tm_objectid=16160326&method=full&siteid=50141&headline=kate-bush-back-on-form-with-first-single-in-12-years-name_page.html|publisher = icScotland.com| date= 2005-09-02] "Aerial" is one of Bush's most critically acclaimed albums.cite web | title = Aerial | publisher = MetaCritic.com | | url = http://www.metacritic.com/music/artists/bushkate/aerial#critics | accessdate = 2007-04-03 ]
As on "Hounds of Love" (1985), the double album is split into two sections. The first disc, subtitled "A Sea of Honey", features a set of unrelated themed songs, including "King of the Mountain"; "Bertie", a Renaissance-style ode to her son; and "Joanni", based on the story of Joan of Arc. In the song "π", Bush sings the number to its 137th decimal place, although for an unknown reason she omits the 79th to 100th decimal places. The piano and vocal piece "A Coral Room", which deals with the loss of Bush's mother and the passage of time, was hailed by sections of the British media as "stunning" in its simplicity,cite news | last =Hilton| first =Boyd| title = Aerial review | work = Heat | date =
2005-11-05] "profoundly moving", cite news | last =Thompson| first =Ben| title = Ben Thompson reviews an album of two halves | work = Sunday Telegraph | date = 2006-11-05] and one of the most beautiful pieces Bush has ever recorded. The second disc, subtitled "A Sky of Honey", features thematically related songs linked by the presence of bird song. The album's cover art, which seems to show a mountain range at sunset over a sea, is in fact a waveformthat represents birdsong. It also features her own "KT" symbol, which appears, slightly hidden, on several of her previous album covers, videos and promotional materials. All the pieces in this suite refer or allude to air or sky in their lyrical content. "A Sky of Honey" features Rolf Harrisplaying the didgeridooon one track, as he did on the 1982 single "The Dreaming", and providing vocals on the track "The Painter's Link". Other artists making guest appearances on the album include Peter Erskine, Eberhard Weber, Lol Creme, and Gary Brooker. Two tracks feature string arrangements by the late Michael Kamen, performed by the London Metropolitan Orchestra.cite news | last =Thrills| first =Adrian| title = Is this great Kate—or just Pi in the sky? | work = Daily Mail | date = 2006-11-04]
filename=Kate Bush King Of The Mountain Sample.ogg
title=Kate Bush "King Of The Mountain" (2005)
description=Sample from Kate Bush's "King Of The Mountain".
Ogg"King of the Mountain" entered the UK Downloads Chart at number six on 17 October 2005,cite web | title = Official UK Download Chart Book | publisher = DigitalStar.org.uk | url = http://www.distantstar.org.uk/DigitalDownloadChartBook.pdf |format = PDF | accessdate = 2007-04-03 ] and by 30 October it had become Bush's third-highest-charting single ever in the UK, peaking at number four on the full chart. "Aerial" entered the UK Albums Chart at number three, selling more than 90,000 copies in its first week of release. In the US it entered at number 48 with over 23,000 copies sold. Within five months of its release, the album had sold more than 1.1 million copies worldwide. Bush herself carried out relatively little publicity for the album, only conducting a handful of magazine and radio interviews. "Aerial" earned Bush two nominations at the 2006 BRIT Awards, for Best British Female Solo Artist and Best British Album. [cite web|title=Search results for Kate Bush|publisher=The BRIT Awards|url=http://brits.co.uk/search/?q=kate+bush|accessdate=2007-02-15|]
In an interview with "Weekend Australian", published in December 2005, Bush stated that "Aerial" was not meant to be her last work and that she wished to continue writing and recording music. On 13 March 2006, EMI re-released all Bush's previous albums, including her greatest hits album "The Whole Story", on compact disc with cardboard cases made to look like the original vinyl pressings. In 2007, it was reported that Bush had met Placebo after they had recorded a cover of "Running up that Hill" and told them she liked their version. [cite web | url=http://www.denverpost.com/headlines/ci_5646271 | work = The Denver Post | title = Going to extremes and liking it | accessdate = 2007-10-26] She sent what was described as a "very amusing" good luck message to BBC Radio 2 disc jockey
Mark Radcliffeafter his show moved to a new time slot and also wrote the foreword for the David BowieSpecial Edition of "Mojo" magazine. [cite web | url=http://www.katebushnews.com/katenews.htm | publisher = katebushnews.com | title = Kate Bush News and Information | accessdate = 2007-07-28] That same year Bush recorded a song for the film adaptation of "The Golden Compass" entitled "Lyra", that was played over the end credits of the film.
Bush is often compared to female singer/songwriters such as
Joni Mitchelland Björk, but this comparison is derived from those artists' uniqueness rather than the similarity of their music. Her music has also been eclectic, utilising various styles of music even within the same album. Her songs have spanned across genres as diverse as rock, pop, alternative, jazz, folk, ska, samba, and New Wave. Even in her earliest works where the pianowas a primary instrument, Bush wove together many diverse influences, melding classical music, rock, and a wide range of ethnic and folk sources, and this has continued throughout her career.
In an interview with "
Melody Maker" magazine in 1977, she revealed that male artists had more influence on her work than females, stating:
Every female you see at a piano is either
Lynsey De Paul, or Carole King. And most male music—not all of it but the good stuff—really lays it on you. It really puts you against the wall and that's what I like to do. I'd like my music to intrude. Not many females succeed with that.
The experimental nature of her music has led it to be described as a later, more technological, and more accessible manifestation of the British
progressive rockmovement that gave rise to the bands Genesis, Yes, King Crimson, and Pink Floyd.cite web|title = Kate Bush Music Profile|publisher = BBC| url = http://www.bbc.co.uk/music/artist/m5vr/| accessdate = 2007-04-04 ] Like artists in the prog rock genre, Bush rejects the classic American style of making pop music, which was adopted by most UK pop artists. Influenced by the vocal style of the singer Bryan Ferry, Bush sings with an overtly English accent, and her lyrics tend to be more unusual and less clichéd than American-style pop lyrics.cite web|last =Moy | first =Ron| title = Kate Bush and mythologies of Englishness|publisher = Popular Musicology Online| url = http://www.popular-musicology-online.com/issues/02/moy-01.html| year =2006| accessdate = 2007-04-06 ] The musical instruments used in her songs and the way instruments are played commonly differs from the American norm.
More than one reviewer has used the term "surreal" to describe much of her music. Many of her songs have a melodramatic emotional and musical surrealism that defies easy categorization.cite news|last = Hudson| first =Sue| title = The Back Page|work =Hi-Fi and Record Review] It has been observed that even the more joyous pieces are often tinged with traces of melancholy, and even the most sorrowful pieces have elements of vitality struggling against all that would oppress them.cite news|last = Davis| first =Erik| title = Red Shoes review|work =Spin |year=1993 ]
Bush is not afraid to tackle sensitive and taboo subjects.cite news|last = Solanas| first =Jane| title = The Barmy Dreamer|work =New Musical Express|year=1983 ] "The Kick Inside" is based on a traditional English folk song (The Ballad of Lucy Wan) about an
incestuous pregnancy and a resulting suicide; [cite news| author=Colin Irwin|title = Iron Maiden|work =Q magazine|date=November 1989] "Kashka From Baghdad" is a song about a homosexual male couple; [cite news| author=Phil Sutcliffe|title = Labushka|work =Sounds| date = 1980- 08-30] Out magazinelisted two of her albums in their Top 100 Greatest Gayest albums list. [ [http://www.out.com/detail.asp?id=24096 100 Greatest Gayest Albums 51-60 Out Magazine] ] [ [http://www.out.com/detail.asp?id=24099 Top 100 Greatest Gayest albums 81-90 Out Magazine] ] "The Infant Kiss" is a song about a haunted, unstable woman's almost pedophiliac infatuation with a young boy in her care (inspired by Jack Clayton's film "The Innocents" (1961), which had been based on Henry James's famous novella " The Turn of the Screw"); [cite news| title = Kate Bush interview|work =Q Magazine| year =1990 ] and "Breathing" explores the results of nuclear falloutfrom the perspective of an unborn child in the womb. [cite news| title = Kate Bush interview|publisher =Smash Hits| year =1980 ] Her lyrics have referenced a wide array of subject matter, often relatively obscure, such as Wilhelm Reichin "Cloudbusting" and G. I. Gurdjieffin "Them Heavy People", while "Deeper Understanding", from "The Sensual World", portrays a person who stays indoors, obsessively talking to a computer and shunning human contact.
Comedy is also a big influence on her and is a significant component of her work. She has cited
Woody Allen,cite news|last =Brown | first =Len| title = In the Realm of the Senses|work =New Musical Express| date = 1989-10-07] " Monty Python", " Fawlty Towers", and "The Young Ones" as particular favourites. Horror movies are another interest of Bush's and have influenced the gothic nature of several of her songs, such as "Get Out Of My House", inspired by Stanley Kubrick's " The Shining", and "Hounds of Love", inspired by the 1957 horror movie " Night Of The Demon".cite news | last =Sutcliffe| first =Phil| title = Hounds of Love Sleeve Notes | work = Q magazine |date=June 1991] Her songs have occasionally combined comedy and horror to form dark humour, such as murder by poisoning in "Coffee Homeground", an alcoholic mother in "The Ran Tan Waltz" and the upbeat "The Wedding List", a song inspired by François Truffaut's 1967 film of Cornell Woolrich's " The Bride Wore Black" about the death of a groom and the bride's subsequent revenge against the killer. [cite news| author=Colin Irwin|title = Paranoia and Passion of the Kate Inside|work =Melody Maker| date = 1980- 10-04]
Bush's only tour took place 2 April – 13 May 1979, after which she gave only the occasional live performance. Several reasons have been suggested as to why she abandoned touring, among them her reputed need to be in total control of the final product, which is incompatible with live stage performance, a rumour of a crippling
fear of flying, and the suggestion that the death of 21-year-old Bill Duffield severely affected her. Duffield, her lighting director, was killed in an accident during her 2 April 1979 concert at Poole Arts Centre. Bush held a benefit concerton 12 May 1979, with Peter Gabrieland Steve Harleyat London's Hammersmith Odeon for his family. Duffield would be honoured in two later songs: "Blow Away" on "Never for Ever" and "Moments of Pleasure" on "The Red Shoes". Bush explained in a BBC Radio 2interview with Mark Radcliffethat she actually enjoyed the tour but was consumed with producing her subsequent records, being more involved with the recording process than most artists.Fact|date=June 2008
During the same period as her tour, she made numerous television appearances around the world, including "
Top of the Pops" in the United Kingdom, "Bio's Bahnhof" in Germany, and " Saturday Night Live" in the United States (with Paul Shafferon piano).cite news|last = Gambaccini | first =Paul| title = Kate Bush Smiles in Her New Red Shoes|work =New York Press| date = 1993-11-24] On 28 December 1979 BBC TV aired the "Kate Bush Christmas Special". It was recorded in October 1979 at the BBC Studios in Birmingham, England. As well as playing songs from her first two albums, she played " December Will Be Magic Again", and "Violin" from her forthcoming album, "Never for Ever". Peter Gabriel made a guest appearance to play "Here Comes the Flood", and a duet of Roy Harper's "Another Day" with Bush.cite web| title = Kate Bush - BBC Christmas Special 1979|url =http://gaffa.org/passing/v79_dec.html| accessdate = 2008-06-06 ]
In 1982 Bush participated in the first benefit concert in aid of
The Prince's Trustalongside artists such as Madness, Midge Ure, Phil Collins, Mick Karnand Pete Townshend. This one-off performance became notorious for her "wardrobe malfunction" when one of the shoulder straps of her top broke during her performance of "The Wedding List"; Bush carried on with the song, holding the offending item to her chest, before taking a very shallow bow. Townshend covered her quick exit with a "Whoops!"Fact|date-June 2008|date=June 2008
On 25 April 1986 Bush performed live for British charity event
Comic Relief, singing "Do Bears... ?", a humorous duet with Rowan Atkinson, and a rendition of "Breathing". Later in the year on 28 June 1986 she made a guest appearance to duet with Peter Gabrielon "Don't Give Up" at Earl's Court, London as part of his "So" tour. In March 1987, Bush sang " Running Up That Hill" at The Secret Policeman's Third Ball, with David Gilmouron guitar.Fact|date=June 2008
On the 17th January 2002, Bush appeared with Gilmour singing the part of the doctor in "
Comfortably Numb" at the Royal Festival Hallin London. Although this was recorded for inclusion on the " David Gilmour in Concert" DVD, it was left off the final release as Bush was unhappy with her nervous performance.Fact|date=June 2008
Bush has appeared in many innovative music videos designed to accompany her singles releases. Among the best known are those for "
Running Up That Hill", "Babooshka", "Breathing", "Wuthering Heights", " Them Heavy People", " The Man with the Child in His Eyes", which was the 55th video played on the first day of MTV, and " Cloudbusting", featuring actor Donald Sutherland, who made time during the filming of another project to take part in the video cite news| title = Kate Bush radio interview|publisher =CBAK 4011 (Australia)|year=1985] . EMIhas released a few collections of her videos, including "The Single File", "Hair of the Hound", "The Whole Story", and "The Sensual World", as well as an abridged concert video of her 1979 tour "Live at Hammersmith Odeon".
In 1993, she directed and starred in the short film, "
The Line, the Cross & the Curve", a musical co-starring Miranda Richardsonfeaturing music from Bush's album "The Red Shoes", which was inspired by the classic movie of the same name. It was released on VHSin the UK in 1994 and also received a small number of cinema screenings around the world. Overall it was a critical failure. In recent interviews, Bush has said that she considers it a failure, and stated in 2001: "I'm very pleased with four minutes of it, but I'm very disappointed with the rest." [cite web|title = The Big Sleep|work=Q magazine| url = http://www.katebushnews.com/2001.htm| year =2001| accessdate = 2007-04-04 ] . In a 2005 interview she went as far as to described the film as "A load of bollocks" [Mojo Magazine, page 81, October 2005 edition] .
In 1994, Bush provided the music used in series of
psychedelic-themed television commercials for the soft drink Fruitopiathat appeared in the United States. The same company aired the ads in the United Kingdom, but the British version featured Elizabeth Fraserof Cocteau Twinsinstead of Bush.cite web| title = Cocteau Twins Discography|publisher =CocteauTwins.org| url = http://www.cocteautwins.org/~leesa/cocteautwins/cHTML/html/soundtracks.html |accessdate= 2007-04-04 ]
Several collections of Bush's music videos have been released on VHS, most notably "The Single File", which contained videos predating the "Hounds of Love" album; "Hair of the Hound", containing videos concerning that album; and "The Whole Story", a career video overview released in conjunction with the 1986 compilation album of the same title. In late 2006, a DVD documentary entitled "Kate Bush Under Review" was released by Sexy Intellectual, which included archival interviews with Bush, along with interviews with a selection of music historians and journalists (including Phil Sutcliffe,
Nigel Williamson, and Morris Pert). The DVD also includes clips from several of Bush's music videos.cite web| title = Kate Bush - Under Review|publisher =Amazon.com|url = http://www.amazon.com/dp/B000EXZHPQ/| accessdate = 2007-04-04 ] As of 2008, a DVD collection of Bush's videography from 1978 to 2005 had yet to be released.On 2 December 2008 the DVD collection of the fourth season of Saturday Night Liveincluding her performances will be released. [ [http://www.tvshowsondvd.com/news/Saturday-Night-Live-Season-4/10468 Saturday Night Live: Universal announces The complete 4th season TVonDVD.com 5 September 2008] ]
In 1990, Bush starred in the
black comedyfilm "Les Dogs", produced by " The Comic Strip" for BBC television. Beginning in 1982 on the UK's Channel 4, "The Comic Strip Presents ..." offered a series of comedy films featuring comedians including Rik Mayall, Dawn French, Jennifer Saunders, and Robbie Coltrane. The movies were usually written and produced by Peter Richardson, who often also acted. In "Les Dogs", aired on 8 March 1990, Bush plays the bride Angela at a wedding set in a post-apocalyptic version of Britain. While Bush's is a silent presence in a wedding dress throughout most of the film, she does have several lines of dialogue with Peter Richardson in two dream sequences. In another "Comic Strip Presents" film, "GLC", she produced the theme song "Ken" which includes a vocal performance by Bush. She also produced all the incidental music, which is synthesizer based.
In 1985, Bush contributed a darkly melancholic version of the
Ary Barrososong "Brazil" to the soundtrack of the Terry Gilliamfilm "Brazil". The track was scored and arranged by Michael Kamen. In 1986, she wrote and recorded "Be Kind To My Mistakes" for the Nicolas Roegfilm "Castaway". An edited version of this track was used as the B sideto her 1989 single "This Woman's Work" and subsequently appeared the following year on one of the albums of B-sides included in her album box set, also entitled "This Woman's Work". In 1988, the song "This Woman's Work" was featured in the John Hughes film " She's Having A Baby" a year before a very slightly remixed version appeared on Bush's album " The Sensual World".
In 1999, Bush wrote and recorded a song for the
Disneyfilm "Dinosaur", but the track was ultimately not included on the soundtrack. According to the winter 1999 issue of "HomeGround", a Kate Bush fanzine, it was scrapped when Disney asked Bush to rewrite the song and Bush refused. The Man with the Child in His Eyesis on the soundtrack for the 2007 British romantic comedyfilm Starter for Ten. [ [http://www.cduniverse.com/search/xx/music/pid/7318125/a/Starter+For+Ten.htm Starter For Ten Soundtrack CD: CD Universe] ]
Bush provided an original song, "Lyra", for the closing credits of the 2007 film "The Golden Compass". The song is written and produced by Bush in her own studio and features the Magdalen College Choir. The title refers to
Lyra Belacqua, the lead character in the film. Bush writing on her website called the trilogy "a masterpiece" and said she was "thrilled" to be asked to write the song. According to Del Palmer Bush was asked to do the song on very short notice and the whole project was completed in 10 days.cite web | title = Lyra| publisher = DelPalmer.com| url =http://www.delpalmer.com/page14.htm | author = Palmer, Del| accessdate =2008-05-15 ] "Lyra" was nominated for the International Press Academy's Satellite Award for original song in a motion picture.cite web | title = Tis the Awards Season: Lots of Green & “Golden” Loving Stars| publisher =Hollywood Today | url = http://www.hollywoodtoday.net/?p=3036| date =2007-11-30 |author=Silberman, Stacey | accessdate =2008-05-15 ]
Bush provided vocals on two of
Peter Gabriel's albums, including the hits "Games Without Frontiers" and "Don't Give Up, as well as " No Self-Control". Gabriel appeared on Bush's 1979 television special, where they sang a duet of Roy Harper's "Another Day". She has also sung on the title song of the 1986 Big Countryalbum "The Seer", the Midge Uresong "Sister and Brother" from his 1988 album "Answers to Nothing", Go West's 1987 single "The King Is Dead" and, in 1996, the song "My Computer" from the Prince album "Emancipation". In 1987, she sang a verse on the charity single "Let It Be" by Ferry Aid. She also sang a line on the charity single "Spirit of the Forest" by Spirit of the Forestin 1989. In 1995, Bush covered George Gershwin's "The Man I Love" for the tribute album " The Glory of Gershwin". In 1996, Bush contributed a version of "Mná na hÉireann" (Irish for Women of Ireland) for the Anglo-Irish folk-rock compilation project "Common Ground: The Voices of Modern Irish Music". Bush had to sing the song in Irish, which she learned to do phonetically.cite news| title = Mna Na h-Éireann|work =Hot Press| date = 1996-05-29] Artists that have contributed to Bush's own albums include Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck, David Gilmour, Nigel Kennedy, Gary Brooker, and Prince. Bush provided backing vocals for a song that was recorded during the 1990’s entitled "Wouldn't Change a Thing" by Lionel Azulay the drummer with the original band that was later to become the KT Bush Band. The song which was engineered and produced by Del Palmeris available for download and will be on Azulay’s upcoming CD. [ [http://www.myspace.com/lionelazulayLionel Lionel Azulay MySpace Page] ] [ [http://www.katebushnews.com/katenews.htm Kate Bush News and Information 26 August 2008] ]
Inspiration for other artists
From the 1980s onward it has become almost standard for individualistic female
singer-songwriters to be compared to Bush by the media. She has been noted as an influence on artists as diverse as Alexz Johnson [cite web| title = Music to his ears|work =The Guardian | url = http://arts.guardian.co.uk/features/story/0,,1645991,00.html| date = 2005-11-19|accessdate = 2007-04-04 ] Antony and the Johnsons, Björk,cite news| title = Interview with Bjork|work =Time Out | date = 1997-10-15] Bloc Party, [cite web| title = Archive|publisher =BlocParty.com | url = http://www.blocparty.com/history.php| accessdate = 2007-04-04 ] Coldplay,cite web|last = Moayeri | first =Lily| title = X&Y review|work =Miami New Times| url = http://www.miaminewtimes.com/2005-06-09/music/coldplay/| date = 2005-06-09|accessdate = 2007-04-04 ] Goldfrapp, Joanna Newsom, Mylene Farmer, KT Tunstall,cite news|last = Boyd| first =Brian| title = What Kate didn't do next|work =The Irish Times| date = 2005-10-28] Lily Allen, [cite web|title = Lily Allen|publisher =Upcoming.org| url = http://upcoming.org/event/ext/ylocal/64385787| accessdate = 2007-04-04 ] Muse, Elisacite news|last = Boyd| first =Brian| title = What Kate didn't do next|work =The Irish Times| date = 2005-10-28] , OutKast,cite web|title = Kate Bush is Back |publisher =Triple J Music News| | url = http://www.abc.net.au/triplej/musicnews/s1470979.htm| accessdate = 2007-04-04 ] PJ Harvey,cite web|title = Kate Bush is Back |publisher =Triple J Music News| url = http://www.abc.net.au/triplej/musicnews/s1470979.htm| accessdate = 2007-04-04 ] cite web|last = Ellen| first =Barbara| title = Comeback Kate|work =The Observer | url = http://arts.guardian.co.uk/features/story/0,,1582789,00.html| date = 2005-10-02| accessdate = 2007-04-04 ] Darren Hayes, and Tori Amos, [cite web|last = Huey| first =Steve| title = Under the Pink review|publisher =All Music Guide| url = http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A3502568| accessdate = 2007-04-04 ] Paula Cole, accepting the Best New Artist Grammy in 1996, named Bush as an influence. Ariel Pinkwrote a tribute song for Kate titled "For Kate I Wait" on the album "The Doldrums". George Michaelchose " Army Dreamers" for his celebrity playlist on the iTuneswebsite. The trip-hop artist Trickyhas said about Bush: "I don't believe in God, but if I did, her music would be my bible". Even the iconoclastic punk rocker John Lydon, better known as Johnny Rotten of the Sex Pistols, has declared her work to be "fucking brilliant" and has labelled her "a true original". Rotten once wrote a song for her titled "Bird in Hand" about exploitation of parrots that Bush rejected. Rotten theorized that Bush thought the song was insulting references aimed at her. [cite web | title = We Are Worthy| work = Q magazine | url = http://www.fodderstompf.com/ARCHIVES/INTERVIEWS/qawards2.html |month=November | year=2001|accessdate = 2007-04-03 ] [ [http://www.contactmusic.com/news.nsf/article/bush%20rejected%20rottens%20song_1052447 John Lydon - Bush Rejected Rotten's Song 12 May 2007 contactmusic.com] ] Suede front-man Brett Andersonhas stated that "Wuthering Heights" was the first single he ever bought and mentioned "And Dream of Sheep" in Suede's song "These are the Sad Songs". [cite web | title = RISE TV programme| publisher = Channel 4 | url = http://www.katebushnews.com/2002.htm | date = 2002-09-17|accessdate = 2007-04-03 ] Marc Almondchose "Moments of Pleasure" as one of his 10 favourite songs on Radio 2 in June 2007, saying that the song had a profound influence on him when he was combating drug addiction in New York in the 1990s. In November 2006, the singer Rufus Wainwrightnamed Bush as one of his top ten gay icons.cite web | title = Gay icons | work = The Observer | url = http://observer.guardian.co.uk/omm/story/0,,1942438,00.html | date = 2006-11-12| accessdate = 2007-04-03 ] Outside music, Bush has been an inspiration to several fashion designers, most notably Hussein Chalayan.cite web | last = Chalayan | first = Hussein | title = Hussein Chalayan on Kate Bush | work = The Independent | url = http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20050212/ai_n9530835 | date = 2005-02-12| accessdate = 2007-04-03 ]
Many artists around the world have recorded
cover versionsof Bush songs, including Charlotte Church, The Futureheads(who had a UK top ten hit with a cover of "Hounds of Love"), Placebo, Pat Benatar, Hayley Westenra, Jane Birkin, Natalie Coleand Ra Ra Riot[ [http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=94106363 Ra Ra Riot Navigates The Hype National Public Radio (United States) 29 August 2008] ] . Artists such as Tori Amosand Happy Rhodeshave covered her songs in live performances. Coldplayhave said their track "Speed of Sound" was originally an attempt to re-create "Running Up That Hill". The British dance act Utah Saintssampled a line from " Cloudbusting" for their single, " Something Good", which reached number four on the UK singles chart in 1992. Their remix "Something Good 08" reached number eight on the UK chart in February 2008.
List of Kate Bush awards
*Cann, Kevin and Mayes, Sean, "Kate Bush: A Visual Documentary"
*Muskens, Helena; Racké, Quirine, "Come Back Kate". Snow White Films. Involved TV Channel: NPS. 2007.
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/filmandmusic/story/0,16373,1601608,00.html 'I'm not some weirdo recluse'] ("
The Guardian", 28 October 2005)
* [http://www.canada.com/nationalpost/artslife/story.html?id=dfad5a0f-0d32-4852-aab6-c6f3f7d74ac6&k=83898 This Bush's mission finally gets accomplished] ("
National Post", 22 December 2005)
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/7530752.stm Two Musicians who have worked with Bush describe her working style and non work personality]
* [http://www.icce.rug.nl/~soundscapes/DATABASES/TRA/Kate_Bush.shtml Kate Bush: Enigmatic chanteuse as pop pioneer] (Soundscapes, Spring 1988. Holly Cruse, University of Illinois, Urbana, Champaign)
* [http://www.katebush.com Official site]
* [http://www.katebushnews.com/katenews.htm Kate Bush News & Information]
* [http://gaffa.org Gaffaweb]
NAME = Bush, Kate
ALTERNATIVE NAMES =
SHORT DESCRIPTION = English
singer, songwriter, musicianand record producer
DATE OF BIRTH = 30 July 1958
PLACE OF BIRTH =
Bexleyheath, Kent, England
DATE OF DEATH =
PLACE OF DEATH =
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