- U Saw
U Saw aka Galon U Saw (1900–1948) was a leading Burmese
politicianand Prime Ministerduring the colonial era before the Second World War. He was however best known for his alleged role in the assassination of Burma's national hero Aung Sanand other independence leaders in July 1947, only months before Burma gained independence from Britain in January 1948.
Rise and fall
A lawyer by training, U Saw first made his name by defending "
Saya San" , a former monk and medicine man, who became the leader of the "Galon" Peasant Rebellion (1930-32), at his trial by the British colonial government, and came to be known as Galon U Saw.cite book|author=Martin Smith|year=1991|title=Burma - Insurgency and the Politics of Ethnicity|publisher=Zed Books|location=London and New Jersey|pages=91,73-74,77,92,65,69] In 1935, he purchased the "Thuriya" (Sun) newspaper and turned it into a device to promote himself and his political interests. From 1940 to 1942, U Saw served as the third Prime Minister of Burma. In November 1941, he travelled to Londonin an unsuccessful attempt to gain a promise from Winston Churchillthat Burma be granted Dominionstatus after the Second World War; at the same time, he made contact with the Japanese to secure his own political future should Japan invade Burma. The British discovered incriminating papers relating to the communications, and U Saw was detained for 4 years in Uganda.
Upon his return to
Rangoonafter the War, U Saw saw himself as a contender for the office of the first Prime Minister of independent Burma. However, the first postwar elections in Burma of April 1947 returned an overwhelming victory for Aung San's Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League(AFPFL) organization. The victory of the AFPFL had been interpreted as a universal endorsement of Aung San, but that was far from the truth. The AFPFL was a coalition of widely divergent political parties including primarily Communists, Socialists, and the Burma National Army(BNA) led by Gen. Aung San, and, as the subsequent civil war in Burma demonstrated, no single group or individual could claim to lead it effectively as a whole; many to this day however believe that if Aung San had lived the course of modern Burmese history would have been very different, for he was the one leader that could unite the numerous and diverse ethnic minorities as well as the fractious and disparate political groups. Nonetheless, Aung San became the leader of the Governor's Executive Council by virtue of the victory of the AFPFL.
U Saw had attended, with Thakin Nu (the Socialist leader who became the first Prime Minister of independent Burma as a direct consequence of the untimely death of Aung San and the earlier expulsion of the Communists from the AFPFL), the first
Panglong Conferencein March 1946, convened by the YawnghweSawbwa Sao Shwe Thaikto discuss the future of the Shan States; the Kachin, Chin and Karen representatives were also invited. It made no impact however on the Frontier Areas Administration (FAA), although a United Burma Cultural Society was formed as a result with Sao Shwe Thaik as chairman and U Saw as secretary.
In January 1947, U Saw and the Socialist leader Thakin Ba Sein were the only members of the delegation to
London, headed by Aung San to negotiate with the British government for Burmese independence, who refused to sign the Aung San-Atlee Agreement. Also by 1947, political parties had set up their own militia including Aung San's "Pyithu yèbaw tat" (People's Volunteer Organisation or PVO), and U Saw too formed his own pocket army called the "Galon tat" to commemorate his defence of the Galon rebel prisoners. The former British Governor Sir Reginald Dorman-Smithhad appeared to favour older pre-war politicians such as U Saw and Sir Paw Tun, whose popularity was now at a low ebb. The new Governor Sir Hubert Rance, along with Lord Mountbatten, however, decided to back Aung San and the AFPFL inviting them to join the Executive Council in order to calm the post-war political unrest.
Crime and punishment
July 19 1947, a gang of armed paramilitaries broke into the Secretariat Building in downtown Rangoon during a meeting of the Executive Council (the shadow government established by the British in preparation for the transfer of power) and assassinated Aung San and six of his cabinet ministers; a cabinet secretary and a bodyguard were also killed. The evidence clearly implicated U Saw, who was tried, condemned, and sentenced to death. He was executed at Insein Jail on May 8 1948. According to an eyewitness, a prison warden present at the execution, U Saw refused to have a hood over his face before he was hanged. U Saw was buried, according to custom, in an unmarked grave within the prison.
Many mysteries still surround the assassination. There were rumours of a conspiracy involving the British - a variation on this theory was given new life in an influential, but sensationalist, documentary broadcast by the
BBCon the 50th anniversary of the assassination in 1997. What did emerge in the course of the investigations at the time of the trial, however, was that several low-ranking British officers had sold guns to a number of Burmese politicians including U Saw. Shortly after U Saw's conviction, Captain David Vivian, a British Armyofficer, was sentenced to five years imprisonment for supplying U Saw with weapons. Captain Vivian escaped from prison during the Karen uprising in Insein in early 1949. Little information about his motives was revealed during his trial or after the trial. [cite web|url=http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=719|title=Who Killed Aung San? - an interview with Gen. Kyaw Zaw|month=August | year=1997|publisher=" The Irrawaddy"|accessdate=2006-11-04]
Burmese Martyrs' Day
History of Burma
* Maung Maung, "A Trial in Burma: the assassination of Aung San"
* Kin Oung, "Who Killed Aung San?" White Lotus, second expanded edition 1996. ISBN 974-8496-68-6 (Bangkok) ISBN 1-879155-70-2 (Cheney).
*YouTube|N003jRV75kc|Who really killed Aung San? Vol 1
BBCdocumentary on YouTube, July 19 1997
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