- José Gil Fortoul
Infobox_President | name=José Gil Fortoul
President of Venezuela
August 5, 1913
April 19, 1914
Juan Vicente Gómez
Victorino Márquez Bustillos
death_date=death date and age|1943|6|15|1861|11|25|mf=y
Central University of Venezuela
José Gil Fortoul (Barquisimeto, Lara,
November 25, 1861– Caracas, June 15, 1943) was a writer, historian, politician and member of Venezuelan positivism, appointed as Provisional President in 1913. Along with César Zumeta, Pedro Manuel Arcaya, Laureano Vallenilla Lanz, Victorino Márquez Bustillos, among others, was one of the defenders of the dictatorship of Juan Vicente Gómez.
Gil Fortoul was born in Barquisimeto, were his parents José Espíritu Santo Gil (known as "Pelón Gil") and Adelaida Fortoul Sánchez. Newborn was carried to
El Tocuyo, where spent his childhood and adolescence. In this town studied at "La Concordia" institute, under the direction of Egidio Montesinos. At this school, obtained on July 2, 1880, the bachelor's degree in philosophy. After that, travels to Caracasfor the study of right at the Central University of Venezuela, in which graduates as Doctor in Political Sciences in 1885. During this period, also attended to natural history classes, dictated by Adolf Ernst. In that time also colaborates with "La Opinion" newspaper, in whose columns argued ideological controversies with some religious authorities, especially with priest Juan Bautista Castro. From that, was identified as one of the key people of Venezuelan positivism.
In 1886, was designated as consul of Venezuela in
Bordeaux, France, staying in Europeuntil 1896. By this time publishes "Recuerdos de Paris" (1887) and "Filosofía Constitucional" (1890). Between 1890 and 1892, served as Consul of Venezuela in Liverpool, England, publishing "Filosofía penal" and "El Humo de mi pipa", also begins his collaboration with "El Cojo ilustrado". In 1892 goes to Parisas secretary of the Venezuelan delegation, at this time publishes a book about modern fencing, as well as his first novel "¿Idilio?". Two years after that, is designated as chargé d'affaires in Berne, at the Venezuelan representation in Switzerland, and began publishing "Cartas a Pascual". In 1897 returns to Caracas, during this time writes at "El Cojo Ilustrado" and "El Pregonero", also dictates conferences at the Central University of Venezuela about sociological and anthropological subjects. In 1898, is in charge by decree of president Ignacio Andrade, to write a book about the History of Venezuela("Historia Constitucional de Venezuela"), his most notable work. From that, Gil Fortoul stay in Venezuelafor a time, but soon decides to move.
In 1900 returns to the diplomatic life, first as consul in
Trinidad(1900), then as representative of Venezuela at the Second International Pan-American Conference in Mexico(1901). After that returns to Europe, where works at the consular office in Liverpooland Paris (1902-1905). For 1906 was in Berlinas chargé d'affaires, ending the first volume of the "Historia Constitucional de Venezuela" (Constitutional History of Venezuela). In 1907, while he was participating at the Second Peace Conference in The Hague, receives the order of president Cipriano Castroto withdraw from the event along with the rest of the Venezuelan delegation, the reason, was because the opposition to a proposal of the American delegation, about the debts and claims from a country to another. Gil Fortoul tried to convence Castro to not leave the conference, that was interpreted by the Venezuelan press as an insubordination to the orders of the president, after his return to Berlin in late 1908, was destituted. Fallen in disgrace with the government, Gil Fortoul plans to travel to Argentinafor cultural activities, however, after the coup of Juan Vicente Gómez, is designated Minister Plenipotentiary in Berlin. In 1909 publishes the second volume of the Constitutional History, and in 1910 returns to Venezuela.
During his return to Venezuela, Gil Fortoul was senator of the National Congress in two periods (1910-1911 and 1914-1916), developing initiatives on the rights of women and children at the civil legislation. In 1913 was in charge of the presidency of the country, because the separation from office of president Juan Vicente Gómez for being at the head of the National Army as a result of the rumors of an invasion leaded by Cipriano Castro, Gil Fortoul in his role as chairman of the Government Council, was designated as provisional president.
After that, was founding member of the Academy of Political Science (1915), president of the Society of International Law (1915), was also plenipotentiary at the Swiss Federal Council, for the negotiation between Venezuela and
Colombia(1916-1924), his proposition was not accepted by Venezuelan Foreign Ministry. Again in his country, is designated member of the National Academy of History. In 1931 was appointed as director of "El Nuevo Diario" (The New Daily), in 1933 goes to Mexico as minister plenipotentiary, for the resumption of diplomatic relations interrupted from 1923.
José Gil Fortoul died in 1943, while he was preparing the third volume of his "Historia Constitucional de Venezuela" (Constitutional History of Venezuela).
* 1879: Infancia de mi Musa (
* 1887: Recuerdos de París (
* 1888: Julián (
* 1890: Filosofía Constitucional (
* 1891: Filosofía Penal (
* 1891: El Humo de mi Pipa (
* 1892: La Esgrima Moderna (
* 1892: ¿Idilio? (
* 1895: Pasiones (
* 1896: El Hombre y la Historia (
* 1909: Historia Constitucional de Venezuela (
* 1915: Discursos y Palabras (
* 1916: De Hoy para Mañana (
* 1931: Sinfonía inacabada y otras variaciones (
* Páginas de Ayer (posthumous).
Presidents of Venezuela
List of Venezuelan writers
* [http://www.venezuelatuya.com/biografias/jose_gil_fortul.htm Gil Fortoul at Venezuelatuya.com]
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