- Cartellverband der katholischen deutschen Studentenverbindungen
The Cartellverband der katholischen deutschen Studentenverbindungen or Cartellverband (CV) is a German umbrella organization of
Catholicmale student fraternities ( Studentenverbindung).
During the period of 19th century in
Germanycalled the Kulturkampf, the Prussian state tried to reduce the influence of the Catholic Church. As a result of this, many Catholic organizations were founded in order to withstand this pressure by forming a single front.
Catholic students of several universities in
Germany, Austriaand Switzerlandformed Catholic fraternities. These Catholic fraternities were the successors of informal Catholic clubs, founded by students of theology. They were formed according to the historic examples of the already existing fraternities, like wearing couleur, rules of behaviour, life long membership and democratic organization, but added as main principle the foundation upon the Catholic faith.
In 1851 in
Municha fraternity called "Aenania München" was founded. This fraternity tried to establish connections to other Catholic fraternities on other universities. On 6 December 1856, Aenania München formed an alliance with the newly founded "Winfridia Breslau". This formal alliance was the birth of the Cartellverband. Both fraternities shared the same principles, "religio, scientia et amicitia".
In 1864 "Guestfalia Tübingen" and "Austria Innsbruck" entered the Cartellverband. Later "Bavaria Bonn" founded in 1844, entered. In 1871 "Alsatia Münster", renamed Saxonia Münster, and "Markomannia Würzburg", "Hercynia Freiburg im Breisgau" in 1873, "Suevia Berlin" in 1876, "Rhenania Marburg" and "Burgundia Leipzig", both in 1880 followed.
These new Catholic fraternities, called
Studentenverbindungen, faced strong resistance of the older Corpsand Burschenschaften and of the administrations of the universities as well. They were forbidden to wear their colors and one, Alsatia Münster even was forced to temporary suspend itself. Nevertheless the Cartellverband showed a solid growth of membership.
In 1907 a fourth principle, "patria", was added to the other three. Patria did not mean a limitation of membership to people of German, Austrian or Swiss origin, as several members from other countries, as
Belgium, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom of Great-Britain and Irelandshow. For example on February 28, 1905 the first American, Irville Charles LeCompte [http://www.afv-wasgovia.de/RAPChronik/z_LeCompte.pdf] , later a professor at Yale, was accepted as a member of AV Rappoltstein, then in Strasbourg, now in Cologne (KDStV Rappoltstein).
Since it's foundation, the Cartellverband only accepted into its structure one fraternity from every university, called the principle of singularity. Those fraternities, which were denied membership founded other umbrella organisations, like the "Katholische Deutsche Verband farbentragender Studentenkorporationen (KDV)", sharing the same principles as the CV. In 1907 the principle of singularity was abolished. Now the former members of these umbrella organisations could join the Cartellverband, which structure and membership exploded.
During the first years the member fraternities of the Cartellverband were forbidden to accept members without a certificate of having passed the
Abitur, the German equivalent of a university entrance qualification. In these times this Abitur was not necessary to study on a technical university. The fraternities of these universities accepted such students. Those fraternities founded their own organizations because they could not gain membership in the Cartellverband. Because it abolished the precondition of Abitur in 1904, those fraternities could also join the Cartellverband. Shortly before World War I, former fraternities of the "Unitas Verband", like "Alania Bonn" and "Cheruskia Tübingen" also entered the Cartellverband.
Several small organizations, like the "Österreichischer Cartellverband", the "Cartell katholischer Verbindungen an Tierärztlichen Hochschulen", the "Verband Katholischer Studentenvereine" and the "Cartell katholischer Verbindungen an Landwirtschaftlichen Hochschulen" followed. Thus the Cartellverband became the largest organisation representing Catholic academics in Germany and Austria.
The academic Kulturkampf
The Catholic fraternities always faced reproaches to endanger the academic liberty with their Catholic faith, because as avowing Catholics they would be ultramonanists, following orders from the other side of the mountain, which means from the Vatican on the other side of the Alps. Therefore they were declared enemies of the Empire. During the Kulturkampf (1872–1887) the few fraternities of the CV could not ply a significant part. During the academic Kulturkampf of 1903–1908 the situation had changed. Now the Catholic fraternities were a main target of the attacks of nationalistic and liberal fraternities.
7199 members of the CV served in WWI. 1282 of them, more than 10% of the whole members died. After WWI the CV was spread on seven states, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, France, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Romania, but soon the fraternities of Strasbourg had to leave Alsace. Having shared the bloodshread of World War I the catholic and non confessional fraternities put an end to their quarrels by signature of the Erlangener Verbände- und Ehrenabkommen (Treaty of honour between academic organizations of Erlangen) in 1921. Now all fraternities treated each other as equals.
The so called White Ring was an organization within the CV, existing from 1908 until 1923. The members were the fraternities Bavaria Bonn, Burgundia München, Ripuaria Freiburg im Breisgau and Zollern Münster. Some other fraternities sympathized with them, for example Guestfalia Tübingen, Rheno-Palatia Breslau, Rheno-Franconia München andMarco-Danubia Wien.
When in 1912 the CV decided that all Cartellbrüder (Members of different fraternities of the CV) had to call each other "Du" (an address used in families and among close friends) a treatment comparable to call someone by first name, these fraternities did not want to do so. Because they were denied to use the "Sie" (a formal address, directed to strangers, especially superior persons) to address an Cartellbrüder, now they decided to call the Bundesbrüder, the members of the own fraternity Sie. Formal sign of the white ring was a white carnation. This was terminated by the Cartellversammlung of 1923, where these doings was forbidden.
National Socialism and WWII
The Cartellversammlung of 1932 forbade the members of the CV fraternities to be member of the NSDAP as well, because the German bishops opposed the NSDAP. One year later, the relations between the German state and the Vatican were cleared by the
Reichskonkordat. Now there was no more reason to deny membership in a party, the Holy Seat had relations with. The same day members already wore uniforms of the SA and the SS. Beginning in the year 1933 there was a process of Gleichschaltung (alignment). The fraternities had to develop a principle of leadership similar to the party organizations of the NSDAP and connection to the national socialist student community. Many Cartellbrüder did not like these scenes but many others were willing participants of the transformation of the CV and the crimes of the National Socialism as well.
As a reaction to these proceedings, the Austrian fraternities and those in Czechoslovakia split off. They founded the Österreichischen Cartellverband der katholischen deutschen Studentenverbindungen (ÖCV) on July 10. 1933, and the Sudetendeutscher Cartellverband der farbentragenden katholischen deutschen Studentenverbindungen (SCV) on June 14. 1933. They should never reunite.
On January 31. 1934 the leadership of the CV declared the Catholic orientation of the CV to be terminated. October 27. 1935 the Cartellversammlung decided to close the CV. Now only the fraternity Teutonia Fribourg in Switzerland survived. On June 20. 1938 the remaining structures of the CV were eliminated by order of Heinrich Himmler, the leader of the SS. All property of the former fraternities was confiscated. Although the fraternities did not exist any more, many of the former members tried to find informal ways to live their academic traditions. There was no unitary attitudes. Among the members of the CV were victims of the National Socialism and culprits as well.
After the war, the fraternities tried to reestablish. This was a difficult and very painful process. Victims of the Nazi tyranny met those, who destroyed their fraternities or even participated in crimes. In 1950 the CV was reestablished, but it had changed. The fraternities in Austria did not return, those in the German Democratic Republic, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Ukraine had to search new location within Western Germany or Austria.
The CV and the ÖCV, the organization of the Austrian Fraternities and the Student organization of Switzerland formed friendship with a contract on 10. February 10. 1963 at Innsbruck. The CV is a founding member of the European Federation of Christian Students' Associations in 1975. It is also member of the consortium of Catholic Organizations (AGV), of the Pax Romana - International Catholic Movement for Intellectual and Cultural Affairs and the Catholic of Germany and several other organizations.
Today the German (CV) and Austrian (ÖCV) Cartellverband together unite more than 177 active and 12 inactive German student fraternities in
Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Belgium, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Poland, Slovakiaand Syria. Today they represent 42,000 academics throughout the world. For example of member fraternities, see K.A.V. Lovania Leuvenor Catholic German student corporation Saarland (Saarbrücken) Jena.
The Cartellverband is a
confederationof individual fraternities with equal principals, in a subsidiary relation, which means that the fraternities have the greatest possible autonomy, within the framework of the basic principles of the Cartellverband.
All the member fraternities share equal rights and duties, especially equal voting rights. Only in matters of protocol, a distinction is made on the basis of the historic date of membership of the Cartellverband. Individual persons can not become a member of the Cartellverband.
All the Aktivitates (an Aktivitas is the entirety of the members of a single fraternity, still member of the university) of the single fraternities together form the Studentenbund, the Altherrenschaft ((Altherrenschaft is the entirety of the members of a fraternity who finished their studies) together form the Altherrenbund.
If there are several member fraternities in a town, these are to form Ortsverbände, local divisions of the CV to coordinate their connections and their exterior view. For example there are Ortsverbände at Aachen (7 Fraternities), Darmstadt (3), Freiburg im Breisgau (6), Hannover (3), Köln (7), München-Freising-Weihenstephan (10), Münster (7), Würzburg (6) and Erlangen-Nürnberg (3).
To see the member fraternities please watch
List of member fraternities of the Cartellverband
The development of membership:
Before the split off of 1933
* 1869: 4 fraternities with 566 members
* 1875: 8 fraternities with 840 members
* 1880: 11 fraternities with 1,223 members
* 1885: 16 fraternities with 1,577 members
* 1890: 18 fraternities with 2,011 members
* 1895: 21 fraternities with 2,773 members
* 1900: 30 fraternities with 4,039 members
* 1905: 50 fraternities with 6,197 members
* 1910: 67 fraternities with 8,966 members
* 1915: 80 fraternities with 12,398 members
* 1920: 95 fraternities with 14,991 members
* 1925: 113 fraternities with 19,840 members
* 1931: 123 fraternities with 26,746 members
After the split off without the members of the ÖCV
* 1950: 95 fraternities with 17,308 members
* 1955: 105 fraternities with 24,744 members
* 1960: 108 fraternities with 29,531 members
* 1965: 111 fraternities with 33,224 members
* 1970: 114 fraternities with 34,843 members
* 1975: 117 fraternities with 33,488 members
* 1980: 116 fraternities with 32,108 members
* 1985: 116 fraternities with 31,872 members
* 1990: 120 fraternities with 32,081 members
* 1995: 122 fraternities with 31,499 members
* 1998: 119 fraternities with 32,104 members
* 2005: 126 fraternities with 29,827 members
Regional groups (Zirkel)
In about 247 locations in Germany and Austria, and in
Brussels, Luxembourg, Parisand New Yorkthere are regional groups of individual members of fraternities of the Cartellverband called "Zirkel". These offer the regular possibility for individual members, living far from their fraternity, to keep contact to other members who live nearby.
The oldest Zirkel, founded 1876 in
Koblenzis called "Confluentia Koblenz".
The supreme legislative institution is the "Cartellversammlung (C.V.)", the assembly of all the member fraternities of the Cartellverband. It is composed of two chambers, the "Studentenbund" and the "Altherrenbund", representing students and alumni. Each fraternity has one vote. In addition to the meetings, the programme during a Cartellversammlung consists of a ball, a
Kommersand a Holy Mass on Sunday. For spouses of members and girlfriends, there is a parallel cultural program.
Superior executive institution is the CV-Rat (CV Council). Chairman is the chairman of the executive committee of the Altherrenbund. The other Members are the Vorortspräsident (the chairman of the Aktive) and two elected members, one elected by the Alte Herren, one elected by the Aktive. There are several other institutions as the department of pastoral care, the department of treasure, the department of academic education and the legal department.
Every year another fraternity or local group of fraternities presides the CV. They form the Vorortspräsidium (executive committee of the Ative), consisting of the president the vice president and heads of the divisions social policy, press and publicity, foreign contacts and finance. This Vorort also represents the whole Cartellverband. The executive committee of the Altherrenbund, a president, and several heads of regional divisions is elected for therms of four years.
The Cartellverband has its own courts on fraternity, regional and national level. These function as a honorary Senate.
Der Cartellverband is publisher of a magazine, called "Academia", which is published six times a year. This magazine was founded in the year 1888.
Foundations and organizations
*The "CV-Akademie", an educational institution.
*The "Eugen Bolz Stiftung", supports the democratic education of academic students.
*The "Felix Porsch-Johannes Denk Stiftung", gives financial support to the education of young scientists in and outside Germany.
*The "Alfons Fleischmann Stiftung", helps constructing dormitories to universities on the territory of the former German Democratic Republic.
*Working with the catholic churches in Africa, the "CV-Africa Hilfe" supports projects in Africa and helps African students to attend European universities by giving them alimentation.
Nearly every fraternity of the Cartellverband is founded upon four guiding principles:
*religio: the fraternity and all its members publicly adhere to the Roman Catholic faith;
*scientia: the pursuit of an academic education is common to all of its members;
*amicitia: a lifelong friendship between all the members of the fraternity as long as they live;
*patria: patriotism towards the fatherland within a
The fraternities of the Cartellverband historically do not practise
academic fencing(Mensur) because it was forbidden by the Roman Catholic Church. Academic fencing is common with the more liberal student fraternities that already existed in German-speaking countries. Owing to this restriction, Catholic students had to organize themselves in separate fraternities. The fraternities only accept men into the organization.
The motto of CV :
In necessariis unitas, in dubiis libertas, in omnibus caritas("In essentials, unity; in doubtful matters, liberty; in all things, charity.").
This was a phrase used by Christian Irenics, and has been traced to Rupert Melden in "Paraenesis votiva pro Pace Ecclesiae ad Theologos Augustanae Confessionis, Auctore Ruperto Meldenio Theologo", 62 pp. in 4to, without date and place of publication. It probably appeared in 1627 at Frankfort-on-the-Oder, which was at that time the seat of theological moderation. Melden was a Lutheran, but the motto has also been used by the catholic Church, such as in John XXIII's first encyclical, "Ad Petri Cathedram" of 1959. The English version is also frequently used by British Freemasons.
Coat of Arms
coat of armswas designed in 1921 by Dr. Joseph Weiß and Philipp Schumacher. It shows a shield, parted; on gold a black eagle with a white shield on his breast, the old sign of Christ, Chi-Rho, within; on red a green hill with a white tower and a golden star on each side.
A Helmet with a medieval student on top, in a green coat, doubled gold and yellow, a sword on his right side. In the left hand, he has a flag with a golden cros on a red shield containing the letters C and V surrounded by a green wreath. In the left hand he has a red book. The manteling is made in the colors green, dubbled silver on the left side, dubbled red and gold on the right side. in the manteling is a white ribbon with the motto.
* The tower represents the inner strength through unity, confirmed by the Cartellverband. It represents friendship (amiticia) in a shared belief (religio)
* The eagle represents the principle of patria, being an imperial bird
* The scholar with flag and book represents the academic
* The two stars represent the two founding members, who share these colors gold and green with each other and the Cartellverband
The Cartellverband has an official hymn, called "Laßt ihr buntbemützten Scharen". The text was written by Heinrich Gassert, a member of Hercynia Freiburg im Breisgau, in 1885, the melody was adopted from the former popular song "Strömt herbei ihr Völkerscharen", composed by Peter Johannes Peters in 1867.
Famous members (selection)
Only fraternities are members of the Cartellverband, in the strict sense of the word. A complete list of all the fraternities that are members of the German (CV) and Austrian (ÖCV) Cartellverband, you can find here.
These following persons are living or deceased members of one of these fraternities that make up the Cartellverband. They are called Cartellbrüder.
*Pope Benedict XVI
Oscar Andrés Rodríguez Maradiagaarchbishop of Tegucigalpa
Christoph Schönbornarchbishop of Vienna
Walter Kasperpresident of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity
*Cardinal Friedrich Wetter archbishop of
*Cardinal Peter Shirayanagi former Archbishop of
Gebhard Fürstbishop of Rottenburg-Stuttgart
Hubertus Brandenburgformer bishop of Stockholm
*H. I. R. H. Archduke
Otto von Habsburgheir to the throne of Austria, Hungaria, Bohemiaand Moravia
*H. S. H. Prince Hans-Adam II von und zu Liechtenstein
*H. I. H.
Prince Katsuraof Japan
Kurt Waldheimformer secretary general of the United Nationsand former president of Austria
Franz Fischlerformer European commissioner
Edmund Stoiberprime minister of Bavaria
Jürgen Rüttgersprime minister of North Rhine-Westphalia
Herwig van Staaprime minister of Tirol
Armin Laschetregional minister of North Rhine-Westphalia
Erwin Teufelformer prime minister of Baden-Württemberg
Klaus Kinkelformer foreign minister of Germany
Alois Mockformer foreign minister of Austria
Matthias Wissmannformer transport minister of Germany
Fritz WittmannGerman politician
Friedrich MerzGerman politician
Rainer BarzelGerman politician
Othmar KarasAustrian member of the European parliament
Andreas KholAustrian politician
Josef PühringerAustrian politician
Anton ZeilingerAustrian professor of physics
Wolfgang Schustermayor of Stuttgart
Fritz WittmannGerman politician
Reinhold EwaldGerman astronaut
Thomas GottschalkGerman TV host
Christoph MetzelderGerman soccer player
Elmar Mädercommander of the Swiss Guardat Vatican City
Matthias StormeFlemisch professor of law
Józef Bilczewskiformer archbischop of Lemberg
Clemens August Graf von Galenformer bishop of Münster
Rupert MayerSJ former German priest and anti-Nazi, resistance member
Aloisius Joseph Muenchformer bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Fargo, North Dakota
Julius Döpfnerformer archbishop of Munichand Freising
Joseph Wendelformer archbishop of Munich
Josef Fringsformer archbishop of Cologne
Joseph Höffnerformer archbishop of Cologne
Franz Königformer archbishop of Vienna
Theodor Innitzerformer archbishop of Vienna
Corrardo Bafileformer president of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints
*H. I. H.
Prince Takamadoof Japan
Heinrich Brüningformer chancellor of Germany
Wilhelm Cunoformer president of Germany
Karl Arnoldprime minister of North Rhine-Westphalia
Heinrich Lübkeformer president of Germany
Wilhelm Miklasformer president of Austria
Thomas Klestilformer president of Austria
Konstantin Fehrenbachformer chancellor of Germany
Georg von Hertlingformer chancellor of Germany
Ignaz Seipelformer chancellor of Austria
Otto Enderformer chancellor of Austria
Karl Vaugoinformer chancellor of Austria
Engelbert Dollfußformer chancellor of Austria
Kurt Schuschniggformer chancellor of Austria
Leopold Figlformer chancellor of Austria
Julius Raabformer chancellor of Austria
Josef Klausformer chancellor of Austria
Prosper Poulletformer prime minister of Belgium
Pierre Prümformer prime minister of Luxembourg
Franz Josef Straußformer prime minister of Bavaria
Eugen Bolzformer prime minister of Württemberg
Silvius Magnagoformer governor of South Tyrol
Philipp von Boeselagerformer German lieutenant and conspirator against Hitler
John Pius Bolandformer Irish politician and Olympic tennischampion
Hans Globkeformer German politician
Ludwig Windthorstformer German politician
Herman von Mallinckrodtformer German politician
Karl Luegerformer mayor of Vienna
Richard Schmitzformer mayor of Vienna
*Sascha Kolowrat-Krakowsky former Austrian director
Reinhold Frankformer German lawyer and Nazi resistance member
Edmond de Goeyseformer flemish journalist
Götz Briefsformer German social theorist and political economist
Albert Michotteformer Belgian psychologist
Wilhelm Killingformer German mathematician
Wilhelm Schmidtformer German linguist, anthropologist, and ethnologist
Alfons Maria Jakobformer German neurologist
Taras BorodajkewyczAustrian professor
Germar RudolfGerman scientist
The Cartellverband has friendly relations with other umbrella organisations:
Europäischer Kartellverband(EKV) : European umbrella organisation
Katholiek Vlaams Hoogstudentenverbond(KVHV) : Flemisch umbrella organisation
*Kartellverband katholischer deutscher Studentenvereine (KV) : German umbrella organisation
Cartellverband der katholischen österreichsichen StudentenverbindungenAustrian umbrella organisation.
Schweizerischer Studentenverein(StV) : Swiss umbrella organisation
Technischer Cartell-Verband(TCV) : German umbrella organisation
Unitas-Verband der wissenschaftlichen katholischen Studentenvereine(UV): German umbrella organisation
Other competing umbrella organisations of German student fraternities exist, founded upon different guiding principles:
Coburger Convent: conservative
*Deutsche Burschenschaft : nationalist
Kösener Senioren-Convents-Verband: liberal
Weinheimer Senioren-Convent: liberal
* Wehr, Florian, Geschichte des Cartell-Verbandes der katholischen deutschen Studenten-Verbindungen, Paderborn, 1890
* Stitz, Peter, Der akademische Kulturkampf um die Daseinsberechtigung der katholischen Studentenkorporationen in Deutschland und in Österreich von 1903 bis 1908, Gesellschaft für CV Geschichte, München, 1960
* Stitz, Peter, Der CV 1919 - 1938: der hochschulpolitische Weg des Cartellverbandes der katholischen deutschen Studentenverbindungen (CV) vom Ende des 1. Weltkrieges bis zur Vernichtung durch den Nationalsozialismus, Gesellschaft für CV-Geschichte, München, 1970
* Popp, Gerhard, CV in Österreich 1864–1938, Hermann Böhlaus, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-205-08831-X
* Schieweck-Mauk S., Lexikon der CV- und ÖCV-Verbindungen, Gemeinschaft für deutsche Studentengeschichte, Würzburg, 1997, ISBN 3-89498-040-0
* Gesellschaft für Studentengeschichte und Studentisches Brauchtum e. V. (Hrsg), CV-Handbuch, 2. Auflage, Regensburg, 2000, ISBN 3-922485-11-1
* Hartmann, Gerhard, Der CV in Österreich - Seine Entstehung, Geschichte und Bedeutung, Lahn- Verlag, Wien, 2001, ISBN 3-7840-3229-X
* [http://www.cartellverband.de Cartellverband der katholischen deutschen Studentenverbindungen]
* [http://www.oecv.at Cartellverband der katholischen österreichischen Studentenverbindungen]
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