- Paul Berman
Paul Berman is an American author and journalist who writes on politics and literature. His articles have been published in "
The New Republic", " The New York Times Book Review" and "Slate", and he is the author of several books, including "A Tale of Two Utopias" and "Terror and Liberalism."
Berman received his undergraduate education from
Columbia University, from which he graduated in 1971 with a BA and MA in American history. He has reported on Nicaragua's civil wars, Mexico's elections, and the Czech Republic's Velvet Revolution. [ [http://journalism.nyu.edu/faculty/berman.html New York University faculty profile] ] Currently he is a senior fellow at the World Policy Institute, a professor of journalism and distinguished writer in residence at New York University, and a member of the editorial board of "Dissent". Berman's influence has seen him described as a "Philosopher King" of the liberal hawks[Anatol Lieven, [http://www.thenation.com/doc/20041025/lieven/single Liberal Hawk Down] , Anatol Lieven, The Nation, 7 October 2004] .
Totalitarianism and Islamic Fundamentalism
In "Terror and Liberalism", Berman suggests that the appeal of totalitarian movements emanated from
liberalism's apparent failure in the aftermath of the First World War. Movements like Fascism, Nazism, Falangism, and Communismall share, according to Berman, two essential similarities. Firstly, they envision themselves as a force being attacked by barbarians who can only be defended by the internal purification of the movement. Berman sees the Communist striving for ideological purity, the Falangist pursuit of religious purity, and the Nazi pursuit of racial purity as being related efforts in this regard. Together with this purifying impulse, Berman argues that these totalitarian movements share a similar nihiliststrand.
Berman then tries to trace these commonalities between the various totalitarian ideologies into the modern Islamic world. He splits Islamic thought into two broad categories:
Pan-Arabismand Islamic fundamentalism. Pan-Arabist movements like the Ba'ath Party, he suggests, was influenced by traditional European totalitarian thought. In the Islamic fundamentalist movement, Berman sees the re-emergence of the nihilist strand in the form of suicide bombingsand the celebration of martyrdom.
Several intellectuals have cited Berman's influence on their thinking. British writer,
Nick Cohen, in his switch to support for the wider war on terror, cited "Terror and Liberalism" as a major influence:
This approach has not been without its critics,
Anatol Lievenof the New America Foundationsaid:
Berman argues that the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan and the
2003 invasion of Iraqwere justified by the doctrine of "liberal interventionism": intervention to safeguard and promote liberal democratic freedoms. Berman has defended the Iraq war as "a logical place to begin" the "war on terrorism". [ [http://www.thenation.com/doc/20041025/lieven/single Liberal Hawk Down] , Anatol Lieven, The Nation, 7 October 2004] In 2004, he wrote in " Dissent", "If only people like you would wake up, you would see that war against the radical Islamist and Baathist movements, in Afghanistan exactly as in Iraq, is war against fascism." [Paul Berman, [http://www.dissentmagazine.org/article/?article=399 "A Friendly Drink in a Time of War,"] Dissent, Winter 2004] While critical of the Bush administration's justification of the Iraq war on the grounds of weapons of mass destruction, he warned " [Saddam's] weapons programs are not a fiction." [ [http://dir.salon.com/story/books/int/2003/03/22/berman/ "Bush is an idiot, but he was right about Saddam"] Interview with Paul Berman by Suzy Hansen, Salon, 22 March 2003] In 2003, addressing criticism of George Bush's articulation of the reasons for going to war, he urged liberals, "And a cold analysis, I believe, ought to lead liberals and people on the left to support the effort to overthrow Saddam, and to push for a genuine campaign to establish a liberal society in Iraq and elsewhere, in countries that have fallen into the totalitarian trough." [ [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/blair/liberal/berman.html "On liberal grounds"] , An interview with Paul Berman, PBS, March 2003] Over concerns that the Iraq war would mean breaching international law, Berman wrote, "We have had to choose between supporting the war, or opposing it—supporting the war in the name of antifascism, or opposing it in the name of some kind of concept of international law. Antifascism without international law; or international law without antifascism. A miserable choice—but one does have to choose, unfortunately." [Paul Berman, [http://www.dissentmagazine.org/article/?article=399 "A Friendly Drink in a Time of War,"] Dissent, Winter 2004]
Reflecting on the Iraq war in 2007, Berman wrote in the "
New York Review of Books", "I approved on principle the overthrow of Saddam. I never did approve of Bush's way of going about it. In the run-up to the war, I became, on practical grounds, ever more fearful that, in his blindness to liberal principles, Bush was leading us over a cliff…It is true and it is a matter of satisfaction to me that, in the years since then, I have not made a career of saying 'I told you so.'" [Paul Berman & Ian Buruma, His Toughness Problem—and Ours: An Exchange, New York Review of Books, November 8, 2007]
On Israel, Berman has further argued that "anti-Zionism, the true origin of which is anti-Semitism, the assumption that the Jews are the center of the world and therefore the center of the world's evil." [ [http://dir.salon.com/story/books/int/2003/03/22/berman/ "Bush is an idiot, but he was right about Saddam"] Interview with Paul Berman by Suzy Hansen, Salon, 22 March 2003] Some have grouped Berman with
neo-conservativesfor these positions. Others believe he is more closely aligned with traditional liberal internationalismbecause of his disdain for the neo-conservative policies of George W. Bush.Fact|date=November 2007
History of the 1968 Generation
Berman's "A Tale of Two Utopias" and "Power and the Idealists" are the first two parts of a history of the so-called Generation of 1968 (of which he was a member). He argues that packaged together with the liberal ideals in this movement were decidedly disturbing elements.
Joschka Fischer, for example, the 1968 activist who would later become a leading figure in the German Green Party and Foreign Minister, decided that there was in fact the presence of anti-Semitic impulses in this movement when he saw a fellow activist participate in the Entebbe hijacking. The hijackers split the passengers by religion, with Jews on the one side and non-Jews on the other, with the intention to kill all of the former.
Also, Berman tracks major figures like
Bernard Kouchner— the later founder of Doctors Without Borders— a member of the 1968 Generation who would later marry active improvement of human rights to established political goals.
At the close of the book, Berman considers the effect of the war in Iraq on these graduates of '68. He suggests that the war split the movement greatly, with many now deeply aware of the dramatic excesses of the regime of
Saddam Hussein, as well as the potential negative consequences if such a dictator remained in power. Nonetheless, they were deeply concerned by the arguments offered by the Bush Administration.
In 1986, when
Michael Moorebecame the editor of "Mother Jones", after four months Moore was fired for refusing to print an article by Berman that was critical of the Sandinista human rights record in Nicaragua. Moore stated that he would not run the article because Ronald Reagan"could easily hold it up, saying, 'See, even "Mother Jones" agrees with me.'" [Emily Schultz, "Michael Moore: A Biography", Ecw Press, 2005. Pg 47-54.] Berman described Moore as a "very ideological guy and not a very well-educated guy" when asked about the incident. [Paul Mulshine. "A Stupid White Man and a Smart One". " Newark Star Ledger", March 3, 2003] Moore sued for wrongful dismissal, and settled out of court for $58,000, providing him with seed money for his first film, " Roger & Me". [Matt Labash. "Michael Moore, One-Trick Phony". " The Weekly Standard". June 8, 1998]
*Berman, Paul (1996). "A Tale of Two Utopias: The Political Journey of the Generation of 1968". W W Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-03927-7.
*Berman, Paul (2003). "Terror and Liberalism". W W Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-05775-5.
*Berman, Paul (2005). "Power and the Idealists: Or, The Passion of Joschka Fischer, and its Aftermath". Soft Skull Press. ISBN 1-932360-91-3.
* [http://www.dissentmagazine.org/article/?article=774 'Paul Berman Response'] in
* [http://www.worldpolicy.org/wpi/berman.html World Policy Institute biography]
* [http://journalism.nyu.edu/faculty/berman.html Paul Berman's Faculty Page] at
New York University(NYU).
* [http://www.dissentmagazine.org/article/?article=399 'A Friendly Drink in a Time of War'] in
* [http://www.dissentmagazine.org/article/?article=259 'Paul Berman on Susan Sontag'] in
* [http://slate.msn.com/id/2107100/ Slate.com: The Cult of Che-Don't Applaud the Motorcycle Diaries]
* [http://www.tnr.com/doc.mhtml?pt=FFbfqVgaVE96UDrHCJXR%2B2%3D%3D "The New Republic": Silence and Cruelty]
* [http://dir.salon.com/story/books/int/2003/03/22/berman/index.html Salon.com: Bush is an idiot, but he was right about Saddam]
* [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health&res=9F01E7D91731F930A15750C0A9659C8B63 New York Times Magazine: The Philosopher of Islamic Terror] - Adapted from "Terror and Liberalism'
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