Amplified fragment length polymorphism


Amplified fragment length polymorphism

Amplified fragment length polymorphism PCR (or AFLP-PCR or just AFLP) is a PCR-based tool used in genetics research, DNA fingerprinting, and in the practice of genetic engineering. Developed in the early 1990’s by [http://www.keygene.com Keygene] , AFLP uses restriction enzymes to cut genomic DNA, followed by ligation of adaptors to the sticky ends of the restriction fragments. A subset of the restriction fragments are then amplified using primers complementary to the adaptor and part of the restriction site fragments (as described in detail below). The amplified fragments are visualized on denaturing polyacrylamide gels either through autoradiography or fluorescence methodologies.

AFLP-PCR is a highly sensitive method for detecting polymorphisms in DNA. The technique was originally described by Vos and Zabeau in 1993 [Zabeau, M and P. Vos. 1993. Selective restriction fragment amplification: a general method for DNA fingerprinting. European Patent Office, publication 0 534 858 A1, bulletin 93/13.] [Vos, P., Hogers, R., Bleeker, M., et al. 1995. AFLP: a new technique for DNA fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Research 23(21):4407-4414 [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=7501463] ] . In detail, the procedure of this technique is divided into three steps: [http://www.keygene.com/keygene/techs-apps/FLASH3.php]

#Digestion of total cellular DNA with one or more restriction enzymes and ligation of restriction half-site specific adaptors to all restriction fragments.
#Selective amplification of some of these fragments with two PCR primers that have corresponding adaptor and restriction site specific sequences.
#Electrophoretic separation of amplicons on a gel matrix, followed by visualisation of the band pattern.

A variation on AFLP is cDNA-AFLP, which is used to quantify differences in gene expression levels. [http://www.keygene.com/keygene/techs-apps/technologies_gene.php]

Another variation on AFLP is TE Display, used to detect transposable element mobility.

Applications

The AFLP technology has the capability to detect various polymorphisms in different genomic regions simultaneously. It is also highly sensitive and reproducible. As a result, AFLP has become widely used for the identification of genetic variation in strains or closely related species of plants, fungi, animals, and bacteria. The AFLP technology has been used in criminal and paternity tests, in population genetics to determine slight differences within populations, and in linkage studies to generate maps for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis.

There are many advantages to AFLP when compared to other marker technologies including randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and microsatellites. AFLP not only has higher reproducibility, resolution, and sensitivity at the whole genome level compared to other techniques [Ulrich G. Mueller and LaReesa Wolfenbarger. 1999. AFLP Genotyping and fingerprinting.Tree. Vol14. 10:389 - 394.] , but it also has the capability to amplify between 50 and 100 fragments at one time. In addition, no prior sequence information is needed for amplification (Meudth & Clarke 2007) [Meudth & Clarke 2007. Almost Forgotten or Latest Practice? AFLP applications, analyses and advances. Trends in Plant Science Volume 12, Issue 3, March 2007, Pages 106-117. doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2007.02.001 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2007.02.001] ] . As a result, AFLP has become extremely beneficial in the study of taxa including bacteria, fungi, and plants, where much is still unknown about the genomic makeup of various organisms.

ee also

* [http://www.keygene.com/keygene/techs-apps/index.php AFLP Technology note at Keygene]
* [http://www.softgenetics.com/AFLPApplicationNote.pdf AFLP Applications]

References

External links

Software for analyzing AFLP data
* [http://www.keygene.com/keygene-products/software/quantarsuite.php KeyGene Quantar Suite] "Versatile marker scoring software"
* [http://www.softgenetics.com/ SoftGenetics] "GeneMarker" fragment analysis softwareOnline programs for simulation of AFLP-PCR
* [http://www.hpa-bioinfotools.org.uk/aflp.html ALFIE] - BProkaryotes or uploaded sequences
*In silico AFLP-PCR for [http://insilico.ehu.es/AFLP prokaryotes] ,some [http://insilico.ehu.es/AFLP/index.php?mo=eukarya eukaryotes] or [http://insilico.ehu.es/user_seqs/ uploaded sequences]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Amplified Fragment-length Polymorphism — AFLP (acronyme anglais de amplified fragment length polymorphism) est un outil utilisé en génétique et en transgénèse. La technique L ADN génômique est digéré par deux enzymes, l une coupant rarement (la figure mentionne EcoR1, mais Pst1 a été… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Amplified fragment-length polymorphism — AFLP (acronyme anglais de amplified fragment length polymorphism) est un outil utilisé en génétique et en transgénèse. La technique L ADN génômique est digéré par deux enzymes, l une coupant rarement (la figure mentionne EcoR1, mais Pst1 a été… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Amplified fragment-length polymorphism — Als AFLP (Abk. für engl. amplified fragment length polymorphism) wird in der Molekularbiologie eine Technik bezeichnet, mit der ein Genetischen Fingerabdruck erstellt werden kann. Bei der AFLP wird die DNA durch zwei Restriktionsenzyme in… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Amplified fragment length polymorphism — Als AFLP (Abk. für engl. amplified fragment length polymorphism) wird in der Molekularbiologie eine Technik bezeichnet, mit der ein Genetischen Fingerabdruck erstellt werden kann. Bei der AFLP wird die DNA durch zwei Restriktionsenzyme in… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • amplified fragment length polymorphism — amplifikuotų fragmentų ilgio polimorfizmas statusas T sritis augalininkystė apibrėžtis DNR fragmentų ilgio varijavimas. atitikmenys: angl. amplified fragment length polymorphism rus. амплификация полиморфных по длине фрагментов …   Žemės ūkio augalų selekcijos ir sėklininkystės terminų žodynas

  • amplified fragment length polymorphism — (AMP/FLP)    Polymerase chain reaction amplified restriction fragment lengths consisting of variable number of tandem repeats …   Forensic science glossary

  • amplified fragment length polymorphism — Abbreviation: AFLP A type of DNA marker, generated by the PCR amplification of restriction endonuclease treated DNA. A small proportion of all restriction fragments is amplified in any one reaction, so that AFLP profiles can be analysed by gel… …   Glossary of Biotechnology

  • amplified fragment length polymorphism —   See AFLP …   Expanded glossary of Cycad terms

  • Restriction fragment length polymorphism — A Restriction fragment length polymorphism (or RFLP, often pronounced as rif lip ) is a variation in the DNA sequence of a genome that can be detected by breaking the DNA into pieces with restriction enzymes and analyzing the size of the… …   Wikipedia

  • restriction fragment length polymorphism — (= RFLP) Technique, also known as DNA fingerprinting, that allows familial relationships to be established by comparing the characteristic polymorphic patterns that are obtained when certain regions of genomic DNA are amplified (typically by PCR) …   Dictionary of molecular biology