- GNSS Road Pricing
GNSS Road Pricing is the charging of road users using
Global Navigation Satellite System(GNSS) sensors inside vehicles. Advocates argue that road pricingusing GNSS permits a number of policies such as tolling by distance on urban roads and can be used for many other applications in parking, insurance and vehicle emissions. Critics argue that GNSS could lead to an invasion of people’s privacy [ [http://psi.bth.se/swits/presentation_ulrik_karlsson.ppt A presentation explaining the benefits and privacy issues of GNSS road pricing] ] .
Even though GNSS and
electronic toll collectionhave been around for decades, the idea of using satellites for road tolling is quite recent. In 1998, the European Unionpublished a report which proposed the use of GNSS to charge vehicles by distance. [ [http://aei.pitt.edu/1136/01/transport_infra_wp_COM_98_466.pdf] Fair Payment for Infrastructure Use: A phased approach to a common transport infrastructure charging framework in the EU, "Commission of the European Communities", July 22, 1998.] . Germany introduced the first the GNSS road pricing system for truck tolling in 2005 [ [http://www.computerworld.com/mobiletopics/mobile/story/0,10801,98679,00.html] IDG article on German Truck Tolling] . In 2007, the Netherlandslegislated the implementation of GNSS road pricing by 2011, and nationwide by 2016 [ [http://www.verkeerenwaterstaat.nl/english/topics/mobility_and_accessibility/roadpricing/index.aspx] Dutch Ministry site describing the Netherlands tolling plans] .
How it works
Although the architecture of individual systems may vary, all GNSS road pricing systems share key common elements in how they work. In a typical
road pricingsystem, in-vehicle sensors record time and position data. The data vehicle is processed into trip data, which is in then matched to a set pricing scheme to produce a bill. Most systems process trip data at a back office, though some systems are designed with all the processing taking place inside the vehicle itself [ [http://www.skymetercorp.com/cms/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=70&Itemid=70 Illustration of Skymeter's road pricing system here] ] [ [http://www.satellic.com/13.html Satellic's Road Pricing technology illustration] ] .
Many cities that have already implemented congestion pricing are looking at ways to expand and improve their systems. Proponents of GNSS road pricing claim it can be used to charge vehicles for how much they travel within a cordoned area as opposed to a flat entry fee, thus avoiding 'sharp pricing edges'.
Time Distance Place (TDP) Road Pricing
GNSS Road pricing enables road pricing policies based on time, distance and place (TDP). TDP road pricing is very much based on the road pricing principles outlined by
William Vickrey[Cite web|author= Vickrey, William | year=1992|url=http://www.vtpi.org/vickrey.htm|title= Principles of Efficient Congestion Pricing|accessdate=2008-02-26|publisher = Victoria Transport Policy Institute] . In such a system, vehicles are charged based on when, where, and how much they drive. [ [https://www.technologyprogramme.org.uk/extranet/competitions/InnovationPlatforms/Documents/TSBRoadCharging.pdf Technology Strategy Board Request for TDP proposals] ]
GNSS Road Pricing Providers
Global Navigation Satellite System
Global Positioning System
Electronic toll collection
* [http://www.gpsworld.com/gpsworld/Innovation/Innovation-A-GNSS-Odometer/ArticleStandard/Article/detail/509263 GPS world article on GNSS automotive applications]
* [http://www.skymetercorp.com Skymeter] : a company that has developed technology for GNSS road pricing
* [http://www.satellic.com/ Satellic] : the company that runs Germany's truck tolling
* [http://www.theregister.co.uk/2003/10/14/think_tank_recommends_satellite_road/ Article on British Think Tank's recommendation of satellite road charging]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
См. также в других словарях:
Road pricing — is an economic concept regarding the various direct charges applied for the use of roads. The road charges includes fuel taxes, licence fees, parking taxes, tolls, and congestion charges, including those which may vary by time of day, by the… … Wikipedia
GNSS applications — Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers, using the GPS, GLONASS, or Beidou system, are used in many applications.Navigation *Automobiles can be equipped with GNSS receivers at the factory or as aftermarket equipment. Units often… … Wikipedia
Congestion pricing — Typical traffic congestion in an urban freeway. Shown here I 80 Eastshore Freeway, Berkeley, United States … Wikipedia
Electronic toll collection — (ETC), an adaptation of military identification friend or foe technology, aims to eliminate the delay on toll roads by collecting tolls electronically. It is thus a technological implementation of a road pricing concept. It determines whether the … Wikipedia
Congestion control (transportation) — This article concerns road traffic. For telecommunications traffic, see congestion control. Congestion control is a proposed alternative to congestion charging, which is used in a number of cities around the world (e.g. London congestion charge… … Wikipedia
Telematics — AVLS redirects here. For option that limits the maximum volume level in headphones, see Automatic Volume Limiter. Telematics typically is any integrated use of telecommunications and informatics, also known as ICT (Information and Communications… … Wikipedia
Global navigation satellite system — (GNSS) is the standard generic term for satellite navigation systems that provide autonomous geo spatial positioning with global coverage. A GNSS allows small electronic receivers to determine their location (longitude, latitude, and altitude) to … Wikipedia