background = #fc6
isotope_name = Uranium-233
halflife = 160,000 years
decay_product = Thorium-229
decay_mass = 229
parent = Plutonium-237
parent_mass = 237
parent_decay = a
parent2 = Neptunium-233
parent2_mass = 233
parent2_symbol = Np
parent2_decay = b+
parent3 = Protactinium-233
parent3_mass = 233
parent3_symbol = Pa
parent3_decay = b-
Uranium-233 is a
fissileartificial isotope of Uranium, which has been used in a few nuclear reactors and has been proposed for much wider use as a nuclear fuel. It has a half-lifeof 160,000 years.
Uranium-233 is produced by the
neutron irradiationof thorium-232. When thorium-232 absorbs a neutron, it becomes thorium-233, which has a half-life of only 22 minutes. Thorium-233 decays into protactinium-233 through beta decay. Protactinium-233 has a half life of 27 days and beta decays into uranium-233; some proposed molten salt reactordesigns attempt to physically isolate the protactinium from further neutron capture before beta decay can occur.
233U usually fissions on
neutron absorptionbut sometimes retains the neutron, becoming uranium-234, although the proportion of nonfissions is smaller than for the other common fission fuels, uranium-235, plutonium-239, and plutonium-241, and is still relatively small at all neutron energies.
Breeding uranium-233 from thorium feedstock is the long-term strategy of the nuclear power program of India, which has substantial thorium reserves. Breeding can be done in either
fast reactors or thermal reactors, unlike uranium-based fuel cycles which require the superior neutron economyof a fast reactorin order to "breed", that is to produce more fissile material than is consumed. Outside of India, interest in the thorium-based fuel cycle is not great, although the world's reserves of thorium are three times those of uranium. It is also possible to use uranium-233 as the fission fuel of a nuclear weapon, although this has been done only occasionally. The United States first tested U-233 as part of a bomb core in Operation Teapotin 1955. [http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/Usa/Tests/Teapot.html] Uranium-233 compares roughly to Plutonium-239: its radioactivity is only one seventh (159 200 years half-life versus 24 100 years), but its bare critical mass is 60% higher (16 kg versus 10 kg), and its spontaneous fission rate is twenty times higher (6x10E-9 versus 3x10E-10) - but since the radioactivity is lower, the neutron density is only three times higher. A nuclear explosive device based on Uranium-233 is therefore more of a technical challenge than with plutonium, but the technological level involved is roughly the same. The main difference is the co-presence of uranium-232, that makes uranium-233 very dangerous to work on, and quite easy to detect.
Production of 233U (through the irridiation of Thorium-233) invariably produces small amounts of
uranium-232as an impurity, because of parasitic (n,2n) reactions on Uranium-233 itself, or on Protactinium-233::232Th (n,γ) 233Th (β-) 233Pa (β-) 233U (n,2n) 232U:232Th (n,γ) 233Th (β-) 233Pa (n,2n) 232Pa (β-) 232UThe decay chainof 232U quickly yields strong gamma radiationemitters::232U (α, 72 years) 228Th (α, 1.9 year) 224Ra (α, 3.6 day, 0.24 MeV) 224Rn (α, 55s, 0.54 MeV) 216Po (α, 0.15s) 212Pb (β-, 10.64h) 212Bi (α, 61s, 0.78MeV) 208Tl (β-, 3m, 2.6 MeV) 208PbThis makes manual handling in a glove boxwith only light shielding (as commonly done with plutonium) too hazardous, (except possibly in a short period immediately following chemical separation of the uranium from thorium-228, radium-224, radon-220, and polonium) and instead requiring remote manipulationfor fuel fabrication.
The decay chain of 233U itself is in the
neptunium series. The radioisotope bismuth-213 is a decay product of uranium-233. Bismuth-213 has promise for the treatment of certain types of cancer, including acute myeloid leukemiaand cancers of the pancreas, kidneys and other organs.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Uranium-233 — Уран 233 искусственный изотоп урана с периодом полураспада 1,6·105 лет, полученный в результате трансмутации тория 232 после захвата нейтрона. Уран 233 относится к делящимся нуклидам. Термины атомной энергетики. Концерн Росэнергоатом, 2010 … Термины атомной энергетики
Uranium 233 — Uranium Uranium Protactiniu … Wikipédia en Français
Uranium — (pronEng|jʊˈreɪniəm) is a silvery gray metallic chemical element in the actinide series of the periodic table that has the symbol U and atomic number 92. It has 92 protons and 92 electrons, 6 of them valence electrons. It can have between 141 and … Wikipedia
Uranium — Protactinium ← Uranium → Neptunium Nd … Wikipédia en Français
Uranium (disambiguation) — Uranium may refer to:* Uranium, the chemical element ** Uranium 232 ** Uranium 233 ** Uranium 234 ** Uranium 235 ** Uranium 238 ** Uranium 239 ** Uranium 240 * Uranium City, Saskatchewan, a Canadian settlement * Uranium (TV series), a music video … Wikipedia
uranium processing — Introduction preparation of the ore for use in various products. Uranium (U), although very dense (19.1 grams per cubic centimetre), is a relatively weak, nonrefractory metal. Indeed, the metallic properties of uranium appear to be… … Universalium
uranium — /yoo ray nee euhm/, n. Chem. a white, lustrous, radioactive, metallic element, occurring in pitchblende, and having compounds that are used in photography and in coloring glass. The 235 isotope is used in atomic and hydrogen bombs and as a fuel… … Universalium
Uranium-234 — Infobox isotope background = #fc6 text color = isotope name = Uranium 234 isotope filename = alternate names = mass number =234 symbol =U num neutrons =142 num protons =92 abundance =0.0055% halflife =246,000 years error halflife = decay product … Wikipedia
Uranium-232 — Infobox isotope background = #fc6 text color = isotope name = Uranium 232 isotope filename = alternate names = mass number =232 symbol =U num neutrons = num protons = abundance = halflife = 68.9 years error halflife = decay product = Thorium 228… … Wikipedia
Uranium — Eigenschaften … Deutsch Wikipedia