- Prayer beads
Prayer beads are traditionally used to keep count of the repetitions of
prayers, chants or devotions by adherents of religion. Since the beads can be fingered in an automatic manner, they allow one to keep track of how many prayers have been said with a minimal amount of conscious effort, which in turn allows greater attention to be paid to the prayers themselves.
There are three widely accepted uses for prayer beads:
#Repetition of the same devotion a set (usually large) number of times. This is the earliest form of prayer beads (the
Japa Mala) and the earliest Christian form (the prayer rope). This is also the type in use by the Bahá'í Faith
#Repetition of several different prayers in some pattern, possibly interspersed with or accompanied by
#Meditation on a series of spiritual themes, e.g.
Islam. Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'ís recite the phrase "Alláh-u-Abhá", a form of the Greatest Name, 95 times per day, as ordained by
Bahá’u’lláhin the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, sometimes using prayer beads. [cite encyclopedia |last= Smith |first= Peter |encyclopedia= A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith |title= prayer |year= 2000 |publisher=Oneworld Publications |location= Oxford |id= ISBN 1-85168-184-1 |pages= p. 274-275]
There are two main types of Baha'i prayer beads. One consists of 95 beads, often with the first 19 distinguished by size, color or some other means, and will often have five additional beads that are strung below. The other main type has 19 beads strung with the addition of five beads below. This counts Alláh-u-Abhá 95 times (19*5). Bahá'í prayer beads often are made from wood, stone, glass beads or pearls.Fact|date=October 2008
Prayer beads, or
Japa Malas, are also used in many forms of Mahayana Buddhism, often with a lesser number of beads (usually a divisor of 108). In Pure Land Buddhism, for instance, 27 bead malas are common. In China such malas are named "Shu-Zhu" (数珠）; in Japan, "Juzu". These shorter malas are sometimes called 'prostration rosaries', because they are easier to hold when enumerating repeated prostrations. In Tibetan Buddhism malas are also 108 beads: one mala counts as 100 mantras, and the 8 extra are meant to be dedicated to all sentient beings (the practice as a whole is dedicated at its end as well). In Tibetan Buddhism, often larger malas are used of for example 111 beads: when counting, they calculate one mala as 100 mantras, and the 11 additional beads are taken as extra to compensate for errors. Christianity
Desert Fathers(third to fifth century) used knotted ropes to count prayers, typically the Jesus Prayer("Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner"). The invention is attributed to St Anthony or his associate St Pachomiusin the fourth century.
Roman Catholics and some Anglicans use the
Rosaryas prayer beads. The Rosary (its name comes from the Latin "rosarium," meaning "rose garden"), is an important and traditional devotion of the Roman Catholic Church, combining prayer and meditation in sequences (called "decades") of an Our Father, ten Hail Marys, and a Glory Be to the Father, as well as a number of other prayers (such as the Apostle's Creedand the Hail Holy Queen) at the beginning and end. Traditionally a complete Rosary involved the completion of fifteen decades, but John Paul IIadded an additional five.
Roman Catholics also use prayer beads to pray chaplets.
Eastern Christiansuse loops of knotted wool (or occasionally of beads), called "chotki" or "komboschinia" to pray the Jesus Prayer. Although among the Orthodox, their use is mainly restricted to monks and bishops, being less common among laity or secular clergy. Among Russian Old Believers, a prayer ropemade of leather, called " lestovka", is more common, although this type is no longer commonly used now by the Russian Orthodox Church. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, "The rosary is conferred upon the Greek Orthodox monk as a part of his investiture with the "mandyas" or full monastic habit, as the second step in the monastic life, and is called his 'spiritual sword'." [ [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13184b.htm Newadvent] Retrieved on 17 April 2008]
In the mid-1980s the
Anglican Rosaryor "Christian prayer beads" was developed in the Episcopal Church. They have since been adopted by some Protestants. The set consists of 33 beads (representing the 33 years of the life of Christ) arranged in four groupings of symbolic significance. Many Anglo-Catholics use the "Dominican" rosary in addition to or instead of Anglican prayer beads.
Pearls of Life, invented by Martin Lönnebo, Bishop Emeritus of the Linköping Diocese of the Swedish Lutheran Church, is a set of 18 beads, some round and some elongated, arranged in an irregular pattern. Each one has its own significance as a stimulus and reminder for meditation, although they can also be used for repetitive prayer. Hinduism
The earliest use of prayer beads can be traced to Hinduism, where they are called
Japa Mala. Japais the repeating of the name of a deity or a mantra. "Mala" ( Sanskrit: _sa. माला; IAST|mālā) means 'garland' or 'wreath'.cite book
last = Apte
first = V S
authorlink = V S Apte
title = A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary
isbn = ]
Japa mala are used for repetition of a
mantra, for other forms of sadhana(spiritual exercise), and as an aid to meditation. The most common "mala" have 108 beads.Cite book
title = The Significance of the number 108.
url = http://www.salagram.net/108meaning.html
accessdate = 2007-12-23] The most common materials used for making the beads are Rudraksha seeds (used by
Shaivites) and Tulsistem (used by Vaishnavites). Islam
In Islam, prayer beads are referred to as
Misbahaor Tasbih, and contain 99 beads, corresponding to the 99 Names of Allah. Sometimes only 33 beads are used, in which case one would cycle through them 3 times to equal 99. Use of the misbaha to count prayers and recitations is an evolution of Muhammad's practice of using the fingers of his right hand to keep track.Fact|date=May 2008 While in pretty wide use today, some adherents of Wahhabismshun them as an intolerable innovation, preferring to stick to the exact method believed to have been used by Muhammad.Fact|date=May 2008 Their use as a religious item has somewhat diminished over the years, and many use them nowadays strictly as worry beadsand as status symbols. [cite web |url=http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/196806/worry.beads.htm |title="Worry Beads" -- The use of Misbahas in modern times |accessdate=2008-04-15 |last=Da Cruz|first=Daniel|year=1968 |month=November/December|work=Saudi Aramco World|language=English]
They are most commonly made of
wooden beads, but also of oliveseeds, ivory, amber, pearls or plastic. Sikhism
Sikhs use a Mala with 108 beads. They also use prayer string made of wool with 99 knots rather than beads.
Non-denominational prayer beads borrow from many traditions without adhering solely to any one religion or creed. They are neutral in nature so that, as a spiritual practice, they can fit into an already existing belief set as easily as they can stand on their own.
By selecting symbols and choosing the ways in which to work with them, non-denominational prayer beads can be personalized.
Non-denominational prayer beads can act as a focusing tool in prayer or meditation, adding a tactile element to those practices. They can be used as an anchor for affirmations and even projects (like writing projects.) When used with repetitive phrases they can provide comfort and ease the grieving process.
In his book, Simply Pray, Erik Walker Wikstrom offers a modern prayer practice that can be customized to meet individual spiritual needs. Using a set of 28 beads as a frame of reference, the practice includes centering and entering-in prayers, breath prayers and prayers of Naming, Knowing, Listening and Loving.
Kimberly Winston, "Bead One, Pray Too: A Guide to Making and Using Prayer Beads " (Morehouse, 2008).
* [http://www.franciscan.org.au/wp/anglican-rosary/ The History and Use of the Anglican Rosary]
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Look at other dictionaries:
prayer beads — prayer ,beads noun plural a string with small BEADS on it, used in some religions to count prayers … Usage of the words and phrases in modern English
prayer beads — prayer′ beads [[t]prɛər[/t]] n. rel a rosary • Etymology: 1620–30 … From formal English to slang
prayer beads — n. ROSARY … English World dictionary
prayer beads — noun a string of beads used in counting prayers (especially by Catholics) • Syn: ↑rosary • Hypernyms: ↑beads, ↑string of beads * * * /prair/ a rosary. [1620 30] * * * prayer beads UK US noun … Useful english dictionary
prayer-beads — vaistinis abras statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Pupinių šeimos vaistinis nuodingas augalas (Abrus precatorius), paplitęs atogrąžose, naudojamas papuošalams gaminti. atitikmenys: lot. Abrus precatorius angl. coral beadplant; crab s eye;… … Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)
prayer beads — noun plural Date: 1630 a string of beads by which prayers are counted; specifically rosary … New Collegiate Dictionary
prayer beads — noun A string of beads used by members of various religions to count prayers, chants or devotions. Syn: rosary … Wiktionary
prayer beads — UK / US noun [plural] a string with small beads on it, used in some religions to count prayers … English dictionary
prayer beads — /prair/ a rosary. [1620 30] * * * … Universalium
Anglican prayer beads — Sometimes known as the Anglican rosary, Christian prayer beads, or ecumenical prayer beads, Anglican prayer beads are a loop of strung beads which Anglicans and other Christians use as a focus for prayer. Anglican prayer beads were developed in… … Wikipedia