Noble gas (data page)


Noble gas (data page)

This page provides supplementary data about the noble gases, which had to be excluded from the main article for reasons of space and focus.

Contents

Physical properties

Solid

Physical property Helium Neon Argon Krypton Xenon Radon
Density, solid at tp (g/dm³)[1] 1444 1623 2826 3540
Crystal structure[2] hcp fcc fcc fcc fcc fcc

Liquid

Physical property Helium Neon Argon Krypton Xenon Radon
Density, liquid at bp and 1 atm (g/dm³)[1] 125.0 1207 1393.9 2415 3057 4400
Density, liquid at tp (g/dm³)[1] 1247 1415 2451 3084
Thermal conductivity, liquid at bp (mW m−1 K−1)[1] 31.4 129.7 121.3 88.3 73.2
Dielectric constant (liquid)[3] 1.055[4] 1.53[5]

Gas

Physical property Helium Neon Argon Krypton Xenon Radon
Density, gas at 0 °C and 1 atm (g/dm³)[2] 0.1786 0.9002 1.7818 3.708 5.851 9.97
Dynamic Viscosity (kPa·s)[2] 186 297 210 233 211
Thermal conductivity at 0 °C (J s−1 m−1 K−1)[6] 0.1418 0.0461 0.0169 0.00874 0.00506
Mean Free Path at STP (nm)[2] 192.66 135.36 68.33 52.34 37.88  –
Solubility in water at 20 °C (cm3/kg) [6] 8.61 10.5 33.6 59.4 108.1 230
Magnetic susceptibility (cgs units per mole)[2] −0.0000019 −0.0000072 −0.0000194 −0.000028 −0.000043
Heat capacity, Cp, gas at 1 atm (J mol−1 K−1)[1] 20.78 20.79 20.85 20.95 21.01 21
Sonic velocity at 0 °C and 1 atm (m/s)[1] 973 433 307.8 213 168
Thermal conductivity, gas at 0 °C and 1 atm (mW m−1 K−1)[1] 141.84 46.07 16.94 8.74 5.06
Molar refraction (D line, cm3)[7] 0.521 1.004 4.203 6.397 10.435
Dielectric constant (gas)[3] 1.0000684[8] 1.000545[9] 1.000127
van der Waals constant a (L2bar/mol2)[3] 0.03412 0.2107 1.345 2.318 4.194
van der Waals constant b (L/mol)[3] 0.02370 0.01709 0.03219 0.03978 0.05105

Phase changes and critical properties

Physical property Helium Neon Argon Krypton Xenon Radon
Boiling point (°C)[2] −268.8 −245.9 −185.8 −151.7 −106.6 −61.7
Melting point (°C)[2] −248.5 −189.6 −157.4 −111.5 −71.0
Critical temperature (K)[2] 5.25 44.5 150.85 209.35 289.74 378.15
Critical pressure (atm)[2] 2.26 26.9 48.3 54.3 57.64 62
Critical density (g/mL)[2] 0.0693 0.484 0.536 0.908 1.100
Triple point temperature (K)[1] 2.19[10] 24.562 83.80 115.76 161.37 202
Triple point pressure (kPa)[1] 5.1[10] 43.37 68.90 73.15 81.66 70

Atomic properties

Atomic property Helium Neon Argon Krypton Xenon Radon
Atomic number[6] 2 10 18 36 54 86
Relative atomic mass[6] 4.002602(2) 20.1797(6) 39.948(1) 83.80(1) 131.29(2) (222)
Number of natural isotopes[6] 2 3 3 6 9 (1)
Outer shell electron configuration[6] 1s2 2s22p6 3s23p6 4s24p6 5s25p6 6s26p6
Atomic radius (pm)[2] 130 160 192 198 218  –
Ionization energy (kJ/mol)[6] 2372 2080 1520 1351 1170 1037
Static polarizability[2]3) 0.204 0.392 1.63 2.465 4.01
Average Valence Electron Energy (AVEE) 4.16 4.79 3.24 2.97 2.58

Abundance

Abundance Helium Neon Argon Krypton Xenon Radon
Solar System (for each atom of silicon)[11] 2343 2.148 0.1025 5.515 × 10−5 5.391 × 10−6
Earth's atmosphere (volume fraction in ppm)[12] 5.20 18.20 9340.00 1.10 0.09 trace
Igneous rock (mass fraction in ppm)[6] 3 × 10−3 7 × 10−5 4 × 10−2 1.7 × 10−10

Economic data

Gas 2004 price (USD/m3)[1]
Helium (industrial grade) 4.20–4.90
Helium (laboratory grade) 22.30–44.90
Argon 2.70–8.50
Neon 60–120
Krypton 400–500
Xenon 4000–5000
Radon  ?

References and notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Shuen-Chen Hwang, Robert D. Lein, Daniel A. Morgan (2005). "Noble Gases". Kirk Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Wiley. pp. 343–383. doi:10.1002/0471238961.0701190508230114.a01. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Noble Gas". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9110613/noble-gas. 
  3. ^ a b c d Lide, D. R. (Ed.) (1990). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (70th Edn.). Boca Raton (FL):CRC Press. 
  4. ^ at 2.06–2.63 K
  5. ^ at −191 °C
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0080379419. 
  7. ^ Peter Häussinger, Reinhard Glatthaar, Wilhelm Rhode, Helmut Kick, Christian Benkmann, Josef Weber, Hans-Jörg Wunschel, Viktor Stenke, Edith Leicht, Hermann Stenger (2002). "Noble gases". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley. doi:10.1002/14356007.a17_485. 
  8. ^ <3 × 106 Hz at 140 °C
  9. ^ 1010 Hz at 23 °C
  10. ^ a b Lambda point for pure 4He from Yunus A. Cengel, Robert H. Turner. Fundamentals of thermal-fluid sciences. McGraw-Hill, 2004, p. 78. ISBN 0072976756
  11. ^ Katharina Lodders (2003). "Solar System Abundances and Condensation Temperatures of the Elements". The Astrophysical Journal 591 (2): 1220–1247. Bibcode 2003ApJ...591.1220L. doi:10.1086/375492. 
  12. ^ "The Atmosphere". National Weather Service. http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream//atmos/atmos_intro.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 

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